Watchman Fellowships 2000 Index of Cults and Religions
By the Staff of Watchman Fellowship, Inc.
Please read A Word from the President
to learn more about the educational rationale we followed in creating this index.
Annually Watchman Fellowship publishes an index issue of the Watchman Expositor.
The 2000 Index contains brief definitions, descriptions or cross references
on over 1,200 religious organizations and beliefs. This years index is
expanded to include world religions (including Christianity) and related doctrines.
Watchman Fellowship is a Christian apologetics and discernment ministry (please
see Publication Information). Thus, many references
(Jesus, Gospel, Christianity, etc.) contain
definitions that reflect the beliefs of Watchmans staff. While Watchman
Fellowship does not hold to the beliefs of non-Christian religions and doctrines,
we also attempt to describe these beliefs factually, fairly and accurately.
Readers are asked to assist in this effort by suggesting corrections or improvements
(please read A Word from the President).
This is by no means a complete list of cults and religions. Watchman
Fellowship maintains over 10,000 files and a research library of over 25,000
books and periodicals on religions, cults, new religious movements and
related teachings. The absence of a religious movement from this index
does not mean that Watchman Fellowship endorses the organization.
How To Use This Index
Begin your search by clicking on the highlighted letter below that is the
first letter of the term for which you are searching (or, if your browser
will do so, perform a word search for the term). If the term is listed,
it will be followed by a brief definition. Most of these definitions contain
highlighted words that are linked to the definitions for those words; clicking
on the highlighted word will take you directly to that definition.
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By using the terms cult, occult, and New Age,
Watchman Fellowship is in no way implying that the followers or leaders are necessarily
evil or immoral people. It simply means that such groups seem to promote doctrine
or practices which may be considered outside the realm of historic Christianity.
By its primary dictionary definition, the term cult just means a system of religious
beliefs or rituals. It is based on a farming term in Latin meaning cultivation.
Sociologists and anthropologists sometimes use the term cult to describe religious
structure or belief patterns with meanings (usually non-pejorative) unique to
their disciplines. In modern usage, the term cult is often used by the general
public to describe any religious group they view as strange or dangerous. Thus,
cult can describe religious leaders or organizations that employ abusive, manipulative,
or illegal control over their followers lives. In addition to these usages,
Christians generally have a doctrinal component to their use of the word. Cult
in this sense, is a counterfeit or serious deviation from the doctrines of classical
Christianity. Watchman Fellowship usually uses the term cult with a Christian
or doctrinal definition in mind. In most cases the group claims to be Christian,
but because of their aberrant beliefs on central doctrines of the faith (God,
Jesus, and salvation), the organization is not considered by Watchman Fellowship
to be part of orthodox, biblical Christianity. Research
material and Profile are available.
The term, occult comes from the Latin occultus or hidden.
Generally the word is used of secret or mysterious supernatural powers or magical,
religious rituals. The word occult in this publication is used to
describe any attempt to gain supernatural power or knowledge apart from the God
of the Bible. Generally it refers to witchcraft, satanism,
neo-paganism, or various forms of Psychic discernment
(astrology, seances, palm reading, etc.). Research material
New Age is a recent and developing belief system in North America encompassing
thousands of autonomous (and sometime contradictory) beliefs, organizations,
and events. Generally the New Age borrows its theology from pantheistic Eastern
religions and its practices from 19th century Western occultism. The term New
Age is used herein as an umbrella term to describe organizations which
seem to exhibit one or more of the following beliefs: (1) All is one, all reality
is part of the whole; (2) Everything is God and God is everything; (3) Man is
God or a part of God; (4) Man never dies, but continues to live through reincarnation;
(5) Man can create his own reality and/or values through transformed consciousness
or altered states of consciousness. Research material
and Profile are available.
3H0: See Healthy, Happy, and Holy.
7 Habits of Highly Effective People: A book by Stephen
Aaronic Order, Maurice Glendenning, Murry, UT: Splinter group from The
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), founded in 1942 by Glendenning
after he was excommunicated by the LDS Church for receiving and publishing revelations
later known as the Levitical Writings.
Abaddon: (Hebrew for "The Destroyer"; in Greek, Apollyon)
A demon described in the
as "the angel of the bottomless pit" (Revelation 9:11).
Abbey of Thelema, Old Greenwich, CT: Esoteric
teachings of Aleister Crowley.
Abode of the Message, Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan, New Lebanon, NY: Sufism,
alchemy, dowsing, meditation
to lead to "inner attunement," Native American spirituality,
Academy for Guided Imagery, Martin L. Rossman & David E.
Bresler, Mill Valley, CA: Healing by altered states
of consciousness, imagery training (i.e., visualization),
Academy of Religion and Psychical Research,
Evanston, IL: Organization founded in 1956 to explore psychic
occurrences and metaphysical experiences while evaluating
the growing interest in occult phenomena in Christian churches. See Spiritual
Frontiers Fellowship, Spiritualism, Divination.
Actualism: New Age teaching based on panentheism,
according to which all human beings possess the divine Christ-consciousness
and are united with the Mother-Father-Creator God.
Acupressure: See Acupuncture.
Acupuncture: Chinese system of healing using
needles or hand pressure (acupressure) applied to certain points on the
body, traditionally believed to balance the yin and yang
energies in the body by opening blocked meridians (apexes in the pathways).
Once the chakras (key points or intersections)
are open, the chi, or energy, supposedly can then
flow through the body bringing all things into harmony. While some limited physical
effects (mostly anesthetic) can be attributed to this practice, these effects
have scientific, physiological explanations totally unrelated to the mystical
explanation, which derives from Taoism. See Holistic
Health. Profile available.
Adams, Dennis, Mt. Shasta, CA: New Age,
man is God.
Adelphi Organization, Dallas, TX: New Age
teachings on Atlantis, karma,
seven planes of existence. See Stelle Group.
Adeptco, Chuck McDonald, Omaha, NE: Yoga,
and Kabbalah teachings.
Advanced Organization of Los Angeles (AOLA): Promotes
Advanced Systems, Inc.: See Zen Master Rama.
Adventism: Widespread trans-denominational movement
inspired by William Miller's prediction that Jesus' "advent" (return) would
take place in 1844. Even after the Great Disappointment (the date's failure),
many people in the movement continued to believe. Some suggested revised chronologies
and new dates, eventually forming groups such as the Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society. Others, notably Hiram Edson and Ellen G. White,
suggested that the 1844 date was accurate but that a heavenly (thus invisible)
event had taken place. Their teachings became the basis of Seventh-day
Adventism, which eventually spawned its own offshoots, including Armstrongism
and the Branch Davidians.
Aesthetic Realism Foundation, Eli Seigel, New York: Happiness
can be achieved through the harmony of opposites, e.g., realizing and accepting
that the world is both beautiful and horrific (see Taoism).
Educators have criticized the Foundation after public school teachers in
New York introduced the philosophy into high school English, biology, and
Aetherius Society, Sir George King: Clairvoyance,
karma, reincarnation, psychometry,
Great White Brotherhood, UFOs, alchemy,
occult secrets of Jesus, mantras.
Affective Education: Also called value-free, or non-directive,
education. Influenced by the philosophy of Carl Rogers, affective education
programs attempt to facilitate the emotional development of children in
order to enhance the learning process, particularly focusing on self-esteem.
This contrasts with traditional educational paradigms that focus on cognitive,
or intellectual, practices such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. Affective
education has become particularly influential in drug awareness programs
Agasha Temple of Wisdom, William Eisen, Los Angeles, CA: Universal consciousness
of god, reincarnation, occult pyramidology,
Agnosticism: The claim (denied by Romans 1:1820) that one has
no knowledge of God or the origin of the universe. Some agnostics make the claim
on a personal level, while allowing that such knowledge may exist but has never
been known by themselves. Others assert that such knowledge cannot be had by
anyone. Agnostics avoid the charge of dogmatic atheism
by acknowledging the theoretical possibility of Gods existence. Yet virtually
all live as if the non-existence of God was an established fact, and are thus
Agon Buddhism: Sect of Buddhism. Uses
the Agon Sutras as scriptures.
Agyeman, Jaramogi Abebe: See Pan African Orthodox
Ahabah Asah Prophetic Ministries:
Ahmadiyya Movement: Sect of Islam following
the teachings of Ahmad (1835-1908), an Indian Muslim; most followers in
the US are black, Indian, or Pakistani.
AION: Magic, runes,
Akashic Records: Term used in theosophy
designating an alleged library that exists on the astral plane containing
all the thoughts, actions, and events of mankind. Mystics, through altered
states of consciousness, tune into this library for information.
Alamo Christian Foundation: Tony Alamo, leader
of this group, has been imprisoned by authorities for alleged illegal activities.
Teaches traditional Christianity is dead. Former
followers have reported deplorable living conditions, mind
control, and slave labor. Operates Music Square Church in TN, Holiness
Tabernacle in Dyer, AR, and End Times Book is the publishing arm.
Alan Shawn Feinstein Association, Cranston, RI: UFOs,
Alchemy: In its original, literal meaning, theories
and experiments involving the transmutation (dissolving and combining) of base
metals to form gold though chemical and/or supernatural processes. Today, it
caries the meaning of a mystical transformation in New Age
consciousness through various mystical techniques.
Aleph: New name adopted by Japanese doomsday-cult
Aum Shinri Kyo January 18, 2000.
Aleph: Alliance for Jewish Renewal, Rabbi Zalman Schachter-Shalomi,
Philadelphia, PA: Combines Chassidic Judaism, Native
American spirituality, Eastern mysticism, A
Course in Miracles, and New Age practices. Emphasizes
combining syncretistic spirituality and psychology.
Aletheia Psycho-Physical Foundation, Jack Schwarz, Ashland, OR: New
Age seminars on the inner-self, paraconsciousness, meditation
All-One-God-Faith, Emanuel H. Bronner, Escondido, CA: Sells Dr.
Bronner's Magic Soap, which claims to clean both body and soul. The
soap is widely available in health-food stores. Teaches (like Process
Theology) that God is continually recreating Himself. God desires all
nations and religions to unite in an "All-One-God-Faith" on Spaceship Earth.
This unification will come about through following 13 precepts and 20 directives
revealed to Bronner by God.
All Souls Unitarian Church, John Wolf, Tulsa, OK: See Unitarian-Universalist
Association for similar theological perspective.
All Ways Free, Madison, WI: New Age periodical.
Allah: Arabic, Muslim name for God; see Islam.
Allegro, John: Wrote The Sacred Mushroom
and the Cross.
Alphabiotic New Life Center, Dallas, TX: New Age
seminars on ones divine being, Ramtha, yoga
Alphasonic International, Los Angeles, CA: Company specializing
in tapes with subliminal messages.
Altered States of Consciousness: Trances
entered through hypnosis, meditation,
drugs (including hallucinogenics), visualization,
etc. State of being in which one allows the subconscious to take control and
guide. May heighten ones vulnerability to suggestion or susceptibility
Alternative Medicine: See Holistic Health.
Amalgamated Flying Saucer Clubs of America: See Mon-Ka
Ambassador University, Big Sandy, TX: Now defunct Liberal arts and religious
institution founded by Herbert Armstrong. See Armstrongism.
Ambassadors For Christ, Tustin, CA: See Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society for similar theological perspective.
Ameba, San Francisco, CA: Paganism, promotes
the teachings of Aleister Crowley, Celtic
American Academy of Dissident Sciences, Culver City, CA: Studying
a wide array of conspiracy theories, the Academy focuses on UFOs
and the Illuminati.
American Association of Ayurvedic Medicine, Fairfield, IA: Holistic
health association founded by Deepak Chopra while
he followed the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (see Ayurvedic
medicine; Transcendental Meditation).
American Atheists, Inc., Madalyn Murray-O'Hair,
Austin, TX: Advocates strict separation of church and state, and actively opposes
Christian influence on society. O'Hair and two children disappeared in 1994
with a sizeable portion of the organization's assets. It is now believed they
were murdered. Publishes American Atheist magazine.
American Babaji Yoga Sangam, New York, NY: Hinduism-based
American Constitution Committee: Political organization of the
American Fellowship Services: Splinter group of The
American Foundation for the Science of Creative Intelligence:
A branch of Transcendental Meditation.
American Gnostic Church, Daeva Ares Animo: Paganism,
rituals, Egyptian magic,
rituals of Anton LaVey, Gnostic Mass.
American Holistic Nurses Association, Amherst, MA: Trains medical
nurses to use therapeutic touch and meditation
American Imagery Institute, Milwaukee, WI: New Age
teachings on visualization, astral
American Leadership College, Inc. Osceola, IA: New
Age/occult teachings on trance
healings, mediumship, self-realization dreams.
American Pie and the Armageddon Bible Prophecy Home Page: The
pop song American Pie, which prophesies the destruction of America, was
foretold in the Song of Moses in Deuteronomy 32. See Apocalypse.
American Society for Psychical Research, Simon Newcomb, New York,
NY: ESP, out-of-body experiences,
American Study Group, UT: Defunct splinter group from The
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) that used the Book
of Mormon and the teachings of LDS leaders to speculate on end-time events.
American Temple, Michael Whitney, Portland,
OR: A "fourth wave" esoteric and mystical order led by "Patriarch" Michael Whitney
reviving the doctrines of the now defunct Holy Order
American West Publishers, Tehachapi, CA: UFOs, cosmic
laws of balance. Publishes the Phoenix Journal.
American Zen Center: Zen Buddhism,
AMOM: See Ancient Mystic Order of Malchizedek.
AMOOKOS: Occult, magic,
some Hinduism, man is already a master.
AMORC: See Rosicrucian Order.
Ananda Marga, Denver, CO: Philosophy and deities
of Hinduism, teaches meditation
Anchor of Golden Light, Dorothy and Henry Leon, Grants Pass, OR: UFOs,
Ascended Masters, Kabbalah mysticism,
alchemy, numerology. Publishes
the Anchor of Golden Light newsletter.
Ancient Mystic Order of Malchizedek,
Malachi Z. York, Eatonton, GA: Also known as AMOM, Nuwaubians, the Nubian
Nation of Moors, Right Knowledge. A UFO group whose
leader, (a.k.a. Dwight York) claims to be form the 19th galaxy, called
Illyuwn. A 1993 FBI report calls the group a "front for a wide range of
criminal activity, including arson, welfare fraud and extortion." Yorks
group has also operated under other names and organizations including the
Nubian Islaamic [sic] Hebrew Mission, the Ansaaru Allah Community, (an
sect with doctrines similar to Nation of Islam),
and the Original Tents of Kedar.
Ancient Wisdom Connection, N. Myrtle Beach, SC: New Age
channeling, numerology and
belief in Lord Sananda, who is an incarnation of Jesus.
Angels: Supernatural, non-human beings created
by God. Angels worship God and serve as His messengers. The angels who followed
Satan and rebelled against God are called demons.
Anglo-Israelism: See British Israelism.
Animal Magnetism: See Mesmerism.
Animism: The idea that all things in the universe
are inherently invested with a life force, soul, or mind. This belief is an
important component of many primitive religions, the occult,
Annihilationism: Taught by most Adventist
groups, including the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society,
this doctrine denies the conscious, eternal punishment of the lost. Instead,
humans who do not receive eternal life will be destroyed and cease to exist.
Anointed Class: See Little
Answers Research and Education, Bud Cocherell,
San Jose, CA: Mans destiny is to become a God, keep Old Testament festivals.
Anthropomancy: A form of divination
based on psychic readings of the entrails of a human
who has been ritualistically sacrificed.
Anthroposophic Society, Rudolf Steiner, Hudson, NY: Similar to the Chicago
organization (below), possibly affiliated.
Anthroposophical Society, Rudolf Steiner, Chicago,
IL: Occult, related to Theosophy;
teachings on karma, meditation,
Atlantis and reincarnation.
Apocalypse: Also called Armageddon.
From the Greek word apokalypsis, meaning "revelation, disclosure,
or unveiling," the term apocalypse refers in the Bible to the summation
of human history through God's direct judgment upon the world. Central
in biblical apocalyptic literature is the Revelation to John (sometimes
called The Apocalypse). A common feature of many pseudo-Christian groups
is their attempts to predict the date of the apocalypse. For examples of
groups that have falsely predicted the apocalypse, see Church
of the Living Stone Mission for the Coming Days, Adventism,
Bible and Tract Society.
Apostasy: From the Greek word apostasis, meaning "rebellion,"
and the Latin word apostasia, meaning "abandonment," the term apostasy
refers to a renunciation of the Christian faith. The Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society applies the label apostate to former
Jehovah's Witnesses, who are then shunned by all
Witnesses in good standing.
Apostle: From the Greek word apostolos, meaning "messenger,"
the term apostle refers to those leaders of the early Christian church who were
chosen by Jesus. The criteria for being an apostle was 1) the individual was
personally chosen by Christ; and 2) the individual must have personally seen
Christ. Members of the top two quorums of leadership in The Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints claim the title today.
Apostolic Churches: A branch of Pentecostalism
including several denominations as well as independent churches with the name
"Apostolic"; many (but not all) Apostolic churches adhere to Oneness
Apostolic Overcoming Holiness of God, Inc., Birmingham, AL: Pentecostal
church, stresses the oneness of God while accepting the Triune Being of
the Godhead. Salvation depends upon baptism, tarrying to receive the Holy
Spirit, and holiness. Publishes The People's Mouthpiece magazine.
Apostolic United Brethren: See Corporation
of the Presiding Elder of the Apostolic United Brethren.
Applewhite, Marshall: See Heavens
Applied Kinesiology: New
Age diagnostic technique sometimes called muscle testing. Often
patients hold health care products (vitamins, herbs, etc) in their hand while
the practitioner pulls or tests the reciprocal strength in the finger,
arm, etc. to determine the effectiveness or dosage of the remedy. See Holistic
Aquarian Academy, Robert E. Birdsong, Eureka, CA: Jesus
only an avatar of the Cosmic Christ,
of the Great White Brotherhood of Light. Mans purpose
is to reach the transcendental plane, release from the wheel of fate, astral
projection, meditation, cosmic truths.
Aquarian Age Teaching, Ruby Focus, Sedona, AZ: Discover the God within,
the Father-Mother god, Atlantis, Christ-consciousness.
Aquarian Church of Universal Service, Paul Shockley, Portland, OR: Teaches
cosmic awareness but with no specific doctrine. Similar to Unitarian-Universalist.
The Aquarian Conspiracy, Marilyn Ferguson: A book documenting
and advocating the widespread growth of the New Age movement.
Aquarian Educational Group, Torkom Saraydarian, Sedona, AZ: Astrology,
moon festivals, use the Bhagavad-Gita, Jesus
only an avatar. Publishes the Fiery Synthesis
Aquarian Foundation, Keith Milton Rhinehart, Seattle, WA: Universalism,
yoga, spiritism, Theosophy-based
Aquarian Gospel of Jesus Christ:
Book written by Levi H. Dowling, a New Age, apocryphal
story supposedly based on the Akashic Records.
Aquarian Minyan, Berkeley, CA: Jewish group, yoga,
Aquarian Perspectives Inter Planetary Mission, Montgomery, AL: UFO
group, receives messages from Futron and the Rainbow Star Legionnaires.
Aquarian Tabernacle Church, Index, WA: Paganism,
worship of Mother Earth, goddess worship, sun and moon
festival, magic. Publishes the Panegyria newsletter.
Arcana Workshop, Manhattan Beach, CA: Meditation,
Great Invocation, moon festivals. Based on the
teachings of Alice Bailey (see Arcane School). Publishes
the Thoughtline newsletter.
Arcane School, Alice Bailey: Occult,
esoteric teachings, connected with Lucis Trust, formerly
Lucifer Trust. Similar to Theosophy.
Arefu: Company created and owned by Japanese doomsday-cult
Aum Shinri Kyo for real estate brokering, financing and seminars.
On January 18, 2000, the cult announced it was also changing its own name to
Arefu (Aleph, in English).
Arete Truth Center, Paul Lachlan Peck, Las Vegas, NV: New
Age, metaphysics, teaches balancing the body,
mind and spirit.
Arguelles, Jose: New Ager who staged the Harmonic
Arizona Light, Phoenix, AZ: New Age periodical.
Arizona Metaphysical Society, Frank Alper, Phoenix, AZ: New
Age seminars on rebirthing, astral
projection, channeling, karma,
reincarnation, and crystals.
Arizona Network News, Scottsdale, AZ: New
Arm of the Lord, Warren, OH: Teaches that it is a satanic idea to invite
Jesus into ones life.
Armageddon Time Ark Base Operation, O.T. Nodrog, Weslaco, TX: UFO
group, channels messages from outer dimensional forces.
Armstrong, Garner Ted: Son of Herbert W. Armstrong who formed his own
rival Armstrongism splinter group, the Garner Ted
Armstrong Evangelistic Association. See Church of God, International.
Armstrong, Herbert W.: See Armstrongism,
Worldwide Church of God.
Armstrongism: The doctrines and religious
movement originating with Herbert W. Armstrong (1892-1986), who founded the
Worldwide Church of God (WCG). Armstrong rejected such essential
doctrines of evangelical Christianity as the Trinity,
the full deity of Jesus Christ, and
the personality of the Holy Spirit. Armstrong taught British
Israelism and believed that worthy humans could eventually become
God as God is God. Teaches salvation by works
predicated on Sabbatarianism, tithing (20-30%),
and keeping the Old Testament feast days and dietary laws. Under the leadership
of Armstrongs successors, Joseph W. Tkach and his son Joe Tkach, the WCG
has undergone a radical doctrinal transformation. Scores of splinter groups,
such as the Global Church of God and the United
Church of God, continue to teach various forms of Armstrongism.
Arn Draiocht Fein, P.E.I. Bonewits, Nyack, NY: Paganism,
Druids, polytheism, nature worship.
Publishes News from the Mother Grove newsletter.
health practice of seeking to heal certain diseases or illnesses by inhaling
scented steam or fragrances.
Aromatherapy Seminars, Los Angeles, CA: Holistic
Healing therapy, oils healing the psyche. See Aromatherapy.
Arunachala Ashram, Bhagavan Sri Ramana: Hinduism-based
philosophy, also called Maharshi Center, Inc.
Aryan Nations Church, Hayden Lake, ID: A neo-Nazi paramilitary organization
in the Christian Identity movement that preaches
against all non-Caucasian groups. The Order, an Aryan Nations break-off group, killed Alan Berg, a Jewish radio personality in Denver, in 1984. The Aryan Nations
received national notice in 1992 when the wife of member Randy Weaver was killed
in a shootout with the FBI in Ruby Ridge, ID.
As It Is: See Process Church of the Final Judgement.
Asatru Free Assembly, Denair, CA: Paganism,
worships Odin as Father-god, Frigga as Mother-god and Nerthus as Mother-Earth.
Publishes The Runestone newsletter.
Ascended Master Teaching Foundation, Mt. Shasta, CA: Occult,
part of the I AM movement, Great White
Brotherhood, similar to Theosophy.
Ascended Masters: Sometimes called the Great
White Brotherhood. Occult, New
Age belief in alleged teachers or masters who live on an astral plane as
non-physical entities beyond time and space. They can supposedly communicate
spiritual truths to humans through channeling or other
occult techniques. Membership includes Jesus,
Buddha, St. Germain (see I AM movement),
Ramtha (see Knight, J. Z.), Mafu (see Torres,
Penny), Seth (see Roberts, Jane), and others.
Ascended Masters School of Light, Toni Moltzan, Carrollton, TX: New
Age, channeling, Ascended
Masters including Jesus, universal consciousness.
Ascension Week Enterprises, Santa Fe, NM: New Age,
Channeling, reaching out to children with New
ASCENT Foundation, Larry Jensen, Sedona, AZ: New
Age enlightenment, similar to Silva Mind Control, est,
Asheville Meditation Center, Asheville, NC: New Age,
achieving mans divine nature, transcendence.
Assemblies of the Called Out Ones of Yah, Sam Surratt, Milan,
TX: Sacred Name movement.
Assemblies of Yahweh, Jacob Meyer, Bethel, PA: Publishes The Sacred
Name Broadcaster magazine. See Sacred Name movement.
Assemblies of Yahweh (7th day), Cisco, TX: See Sacred
Assembly of Scientific Astrologers, George Cardinal, LeGrosoplin, MO:
Esoteric astrology, karma
Assembly of Yahweh, Holt, MI: Founded in 1930, perhaps the oldest of
the Sacred Name groups in America. Sabbatarianism.
Publishes The Faith.
Assembly of YHW Yoshua, Pueblo, CO: Sacred Name
Associated Readers of Tarot International, Carbondale, IL: Tarot
form of divination, Celtic rituals.
Associates for Scriptural Knowledge, Ernest L. Martin, Portland, OR:
Anti-denominational group whose Associates study doctrine through a Home Study
Course. Teaches universalism, i.e., that all people
will be saved (although not all will experience the first resurrection and live
in Christs millennial kingdom), and the Sacred
Name doctrine (Martin claims that the name Yahweh was removed from the Bible
by Jerome). Martin was fired by the Foundation for Biblical Research (an Armstrongism
splinter group in Alhambra, CA) in 1984 for espousing these doctrines. Publishes
a restored Bible called The Manuscript Version of the Bible,
and The ASK Communicator.
Association for Christian Development, Kenneth Westby Auburn, WA: Armstrongism
Association for Past-Life Research and Therapies, Inc. Riverside, CA:
New Age, reincarnation and
Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E.),
Edgar Cayce, Virginia Beach, VA: Pantheism, trance
medium (or channeling), life
Association for the Understanding of Man, Austin, TX: New
Age, channeling, psychic
reading, altered states of consciousness.
Association of Unity Churches: The denominational structure affiliated
with the Unity School of Christianity.
Association Sananda & Sanat Kumara, Mt. Shasta, CA: New
Age, channeling Christ-consciousness
Astara, Robert & Evelyn Chaney: New Age,
spiritism, yoga. Publishes Voice
Astral Projection: New Age/occult
doctrine teaching methods to induce an out of body experience
(OBE), in which ones soul (i.e., astral body) departs the physical body,
travels to various parts of the universe, then re-enters the body. Usually a
cord is said to connect the soul and body at all times. Also called
Astro Computing Services, San Diego, CA: Astrology.
Astrology: An ancient fatalistic system of divination
using the position of the planets, moon and sun in the twelve Zodiac positions
at the moment of ones birth to gain occult or hidden knowledge of the
future. Profile available.
Astrology and Psychic News, N. Hollywood, CA: New
Atheism: The assertion, to be taken on faith,
that there is no God. Some atheists, such as Madalyn Murray-O'Hair, have fought
to prevent any recognition of God in public life. See American
Atlantic Pagan Council: Association of East Coast pagan covens,
magic, moon festivals, paganism.
Publishes the Atlantic Pagan Council Amateur Publishers Association
Atlantis: A mythical island/continent said to
have sunk beneath the ocean. Purported to have been a highly advanced civilization.
New Agers often claim to have recovered lost mystical wisdom and knowledge from
Atlantis, sometimes through channeling.
Atman: A term used in Hinduism referring to
the eternal or real self and sometimes refering to the principle of life in
At-one-ment: Term used by several Mind
Science or New Thought religions (such as Christian
Science) referring to the supposed metaphysical unity or oneness
of human beings and God as demonstrated by Christ. Contrast
the Christian term atonement, which refers to Christs death
on the cross as the means by which he reconciled sinful human beings to God.
Aum Shinri Kyo, Shoko Asahara, Tokyo, Japan:
Aum (a mantra) Shinri Kyo (Supreme Truth) is the apocalyptic Buddhist
sect suspected in the 1995 subway nerve gas murders in Japan. Police raiding
cult compounds discovered stockpiles of nerve gas and the basic ingredients
of biological warfare. Sect leaders have been charged with abduction and "murder
preparation." Aum leader, Chizuo Matsumoto (now called Shoko Asahara), predicted
the end of the world between 1997 and 2000. The Dalai Lama,
the leader of Tibetan Buddhism, has denied Aum claims
that Asahara was ever his disciple. The sect has about $29 million in assets
and 10,000 disciples in Japan and 30,000 in Russia. The sect has followers in
other countries including the U.S. and Australia. On January 18, 2000, the cult
announced it was changing its name to Arefu (Aleph,
in English). Profile available.
Aum Supreme Truth: See Aum Shinri Kyo.
Aura: A subtle light or energy field said
to surround people or objects. Mystics explain that from the color of the
aura, a persons emotional and intellectual moods can be determined.
Author Services, Inc.: Promotes Scientology
Automatic Writing: Inspired from the spirit
world, the writer has no conscious muscular control of his hands or arms. Found
in many occult and New Age groups.
Avanta Network, Palo Alto, CA: New Age, works
by Virginia Satir promoted, positive and negative energies.
Avatar: Hindu concept of an earthly manifestation
of one of the gods in human or animal form, e.g., Krishna is an avatar
Avatar, Flagstaff, AZ: New Age seminars similar
to est and Lifespring, enables
participant to have conscious shift of beliefs.
Awake!: Magazine published by the Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society.
Awareness Research Foundation, Inc., North Miami, FL: Astrology,
Atlantis, UFOs, ESP
and Lord Sananda.
Ayurvedic Lifestyle Center, Pearl Miller, Reno, NV: Eastern mysticism,
Ayurvedic Medicine: Promoted by Maharishi
Mahesh Yogi and Deepak Chopra. Teaches the balancing
of vibrational centers for health through diet, exercise, herbs, and purification
Baba, Sai: Indian guru, Hinduism,
Baháí Faith,The, Baháulláh:
A sect of Islam evolving into a major independent religion
with approximately five million believers worldwide. Buddha,
Jesus, Muhammad, Baháulláh and
others are viewed as a succession of divine messengers. A 19th century Persian
teacher, the Báb, (or Gate) predicted Bahá'u'lláh's
coming. Baháí advocates a new global order of sexual equality, a one-world
economic system to eliminate poverty, and a one-world religion. Profile
Bailey, Alice: Founder of the Arcane
School. Profile available.
Baphomet: The Goat God, also called the Sabbath
Goat, the Great God Pan, Abraxas, Thanateros, or the Horned God. Often used
as a symbol of Satan, especially in Satanism,
and depicted as a Goats Head symbol, an upside down
five-pointed star (cf. pentagram), or a man with horns
Baptism for the Dead: Practice of The
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) whereby living members
are baptized by proxy for people who have died without knowing the LDS Gospel.
If these dead persons then accept the LDS gospel while in Spirit Prison, they
can potentially attain full salvation or godhood (exaltation). This ceremony
is performed only in an LDS Temple. See Baptismal Regeneration.
Baptismal Regeneration: The belief that regeneration
(i.e., the new birth), and therefore salvation or eternal life, is conditioned
upon water baptism. Most groups teaching this doctrine also add that proper
mode (immersion or sprinkling) and/or proper minister (one authorized by the
organization) is necessary. All Christians should be baptized (Matthew 28:19).
The teaching that baptism is a prerequisite for salvation, however, is considered
by many evangelicals to be a heretical compromise of the biblical gospel of
salvation by grace alone (Ephesians 2:8-10). The extreme version of baptismal
regeneration, which denies the salvation even of baptized Christians outside
some particular church group, is clearly heretical. See Salvation
by Works, Salvation by Grace, Gospel.
Bear Tribe Medicine Society, Spokane, WA: Native American
spirituality, Mother Earth, medicine wheel, moon ceremonies.
The Beatles: A highly influential rock-and-roll group from the 1960s.
In 1966 they became involved in Transcendental Meditation;
later both John Lennon and George Harrison repudiated TM. Harrison then became
a devotee of ISKCON and recorded his hit single My
Sweet Lord as a devotion to Lord Krishna. The Beatles
are widely credited with increasing the popularity of Eastern religions in the
Believers International, Tucson, AZ: Compiling
a compendium of all of William Branham's teachings. Publishes
Bell, Art: Popular late-night radio talk show host. While his Coast
to Coast weeknight broadcast and Dreamland weekend broadcast focus on a wide
array of New Age and occult issues, as well as many conspiracy theories, one
of the most common subjects discussed by guests on the program is UFOs.
Beltane: Occult, Celtic
holiday, also called Walpurgisnacht, celebrated on the night of April 30. Celts
are alleged to have conducted fertility rituals and human sacrifice.
Bermuda Triangle: Geographically, the Triangle composes the southwestern
quadrant of the North Atlantic, with apexes in Bermuda, Puerto Rico, and in
the Gulf of Mexico west of Florida. Some people involved in the occult and UFO
studies believe the Triangle is a supernaturally dangerous area, with many ships
and airplanes disappearing in the Triangle in the 20th century.
Bernard, David: A well-known Oneness Pentecostal
writer and speaker.
Besant, Annie: Successor to Madame Blavatsky (founder
of Theosophy) who proclaimed Krishnamurti as the Messiah.
(Krishnamurti later renounced that role).
Bet Hashem The House of YHWH, New Haven, IN: Sacred
Name, man is the offspring of light, conversion is the union with the light.
Beth El Shaddai, Dick Amos, Plano, TX: Dual Covenant
doctrine, denies Jesus is God.
Beth HaShem, Jacob Hawkins, Odessa, TX: Sacred name, Sabbatarianism, keeps Old Testament
feasts and laws for salvation. Publishes The Prophetic Watchman newsletter.
Bhagavad-Gita: Meaning Song of the Lord,
this scripture is used in Hinduism and ISKCON.
Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh: Though this Indian guru
is deceased, many followers still practice his unique form of Hindu
philosophy and sexual yoga system to gain enlightenment.
Bhakti Yoga: Type of yoga or spiritual exercise
involving devotion to a guru.
Bible: Considered scripture by Christianity.
Consists of the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Christian scriptures
Bible Believers, Inc.: See Branham, William.
Bible Code, Michael Drosnin: Bestselling 1997 book teaches that
prophecies are hidden in a complex network of letters and words within the Old
Testament. Drosnin claims that he attempted to warn Israeli leader Yitzak Rabin
of his impending assassination based on a prediction in the biblical code. The
theory is a form of numerology and has some associations
with the Jewish occultism of the Kabbalah.
Bible Speaks, The: Former name of Greater Grace World
Bible Students: Various semiautonomous groups
that broke away from the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society
after Joseph Rutherford took control of the organization. Reprints the early
writings of Watchtower founder Charles Taze Russell including Divine Plan of
the Ages. Groups across the country go under various names (e.g., Fort Worth
Bible Students, Chicago Bible Students, etc.).
Bible Talks: Home and campus group studies sponsored by the International
Churches of Christ.
Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ: Oneness
Bible Way Publications, Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Bible
Biblical Church of God, Santa Cruz, CA: Armstrongism
Biblical Research Centers: Regional centers for The Way
Bind: See Spell.
Bioenergy: New Age practice of healing. Balances
the life-energy by opening blocked meridians (see acupuncture).
BioEnergetic Synchronization Techniques: New Age
method using the bodys life force to heal itself.
Biofeedback: The use of EEG (electroencephalographic) feeback instruments
to monitor brain waves and skin resistance with the goal of modification of
brain waves. Participants can learn to control heart rates or generate brain
wave activity (alpha, beta, and delta) at will to induce altered
states of consciousness. Enhances the capacity for relaxation and/or inducing
meditative states and physiological control similar to that in yoga
Biointegration, Ross Algelo, Dallas, TX: New Age,
body alignment, yoga, reflexology,
Bio-Magnetics: New Age, the realigning
of magnetic fields allegedly surrounding the body.
BioPsciences Institute, Minneapolis, MN: Astrology.
Black Mass: A ritual in Satanism that attempts
to negate or profane the Catholic Mass. Black candles are used and Catholic
prayers recited backwards. Allegedly, the communion is occasionally performed
using human blood and flesh.
Black Muslim: Generic term referring to Nation of
Islam and related groups.
Black Christian Nationalist Movement: See Pan
African Orthodox Christian Church.
Blavatsky, Madame Helena Petrovna: Founder of Theosophy.
Blessed Be: A common greeting used among Wiccans
to invoke or wish happiness and well-being.
Blood Atonement Doctrine: The belief, taught
by the second Mormon Prophet, Brigham Young, that for certain sins the blood
of Christ will not atone and for which the sinners own blood must be shed
to receive forgiveness (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 4, p. 53). No longer
taught by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,
the belief is often preached and sometimes practiced by members of Mormon
Fundamentalist splinter groups. To this day, Utah allows condemned murders
to face execution by firing squad rather than methods that do not shed the criminals
blood, such as lethal injection or the electric chair.
Blue Lotus, Wilmot, WI: New Age periodical.
Blue Mountain Center of Meditation, Eknath Easwaran, Petaluma, CA: Hindu
philosophy, meditation, uses the Bhagavad-Gita.
Blue Rose Ministry, Robert Short, Joshua Tree, CA: UFOs,
messages from the space brothers, channeling.
Publishes the Solar Space-Letter.
Blue Star, Mary Thunder, West Point, TX: New Age,
sweat lodge, channeling, Spiritual
Bnai Noah: Dual covenant
doctrine, teaches Jesus is not the Savior of the Jews,
Gentiles are to keep the Seven Laws of Noah and study the Torah (or Old Testament)
with Jewish Rabbis.
Body, Mind and Soul: Houston, TX: New Age
Body, Mind and Spirit: Providence, RI: New
Book of Changes: See I Ching.
Book of Mormon: One of the scriptures or Standard
Works accepted by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Saints and other sects originating from Joseph Smith, including the Reorganized
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and various Mormon
Book of Shadows: A journal for recording occult activities.
Bookmark, Santa Clarita, CA: Christian Science
Borderland Science Research Foundation Garberville, CA: Alchemy,
dowsing, UFOs, astrology.
Born Again: Biblical term used to describe regeneration
(John 3:3-7). Some New Age followers teach that the term was Christs reference
to reincarnation or rebirthing.
In context, Jesus was speaking of a spiritual event effected by God through
the Holy Spirit (see verses 6-8) to restore a sinful, fallen human to right
relationship with Him (see verses 16-21). See Gospel.
Boston Church of Christ: See International Churches
Bradshaw, John: Prominent New
Age teacher on PBS and author of Healing the Inner Child.
Brahma: The creator and first member of the triad
of demigods in Hinduism, including Shiva and Vishnu.
Brainwashing: Forced indoctrination using
various techniques to cause a subject to abandon basic political, social, or
religious ideas or beliefs and replace those ideals with a contrasting belief
system. A translation of a Chinese word xinao, brainwashing
became a popular term to describe the phenomena of radical change in behavior
and core beliefs that took place in some prisoners of war held in Chinese camps
in the mid-twentieth century. In a more general sense, the word is sometimes
used to describe any form of persuasion perceived to be unethical that results
in a radical and negative change in personality. See Lifton,
Robert, Mind Control.
Branch Davidians, Benjamin Roden: Splinter group
of the Seventh Day Adventist Church. David Koresh (A.K.A.
Vernon Howell) was leader from 1984 to 1993. He and many of his most devout
followers were killed when their headquarters near Waco, TX, was destroyed by
fire in 1993 during a government raid. Taught knowledge of the Seven Seals of
the Book of Revelation brought salvation. Many followers still believe Koreshs
messianic claims and expect him to be resurrected soon.
Branham, William, (1909-1965): Oneness
Pentecostal preacher who claimed he received healing and prophetic powers
from an angel. Denied the Trinity, taught the serpent
seed doctrine, and rejected other Pentecostal and traditional Christian
churches. Branhamism is still taught at the Branham Tabernacle in
Jeffersonville, IN, and in many other places around the world. Profile
Brethren, Jim Roberts: Also known as the
Garbage Eaters, the group follows the teachings of Brother Evangelist
Roberts. The group requires renouncing both family and worldly possessions in
order to earn salvation (see Salvation by works). Members
travel nomadically, earning their nickname because of their practice of eating
discarded food. Family members note that Roberts hides relatives, moving the
individuals to avoid familial contact. Note: This group is not
affiliated with the Church of the Brethren, an Anabaptist denomination.
Brinkley, Dannion: As chronicled in his bestseller Saved by the Light,
Brinkley allegedly underwent a near-death experience after
being struck by lightning. He teaches people to perform life reviews
to enhance their perception of life and death and to find their life missions.
He operates a hospice organization called Compassion in Action / The Twilight
British Israelism: (Anglo-Israelism/Israelitism)
The doctrine that the true identity of modern Israel (or the ten lost
tribes) is Britian and (sometimes) the British colonies (America). The
monarchs of England sit on the throne of David. In more extreme forms, Israel
is identified with a particular raceusually white Anglo-Saxon, Germanic,
and Scandinavian people. Opposing versions of doctrine teach that Blacks are
Gods Chosen People, Israel. See Christian Identity
Movement, Serpent seed doctrine.
Brotherhood and Order of the Pleroma, Richard Duc de Palatine, Sherman
Oaks, CA: New Age revival of Gnosticism,
God and man are the same being.
Brotherhood of Eternal Truth, New Albany, IN: Spiritualism,
astrology, Atlantis, channeling,
magic, past life regression.
Also known as Center of Light and Life.
Brotherhood of Seth, Ellsworth, ME: Paganism,
homosexual or homophilic magic, teachings of Aleister
Brotherhood of the Followers of the Present Jesus, Ann and Peter Meyer,
San Diego, CA: Alchemy, Christ-consciousness
in each person, channeling and clairvoyance.
Brotherhood of the White Temple, Inc., M. Doreal, Castle Rock, CO: New
Age/occult metaphysical teachings, soul illumination,
three planes of existence.
The Bruderhof Community: A communal society started in Germany in the
1920s and based on the sixteenth-century Moravian Anabaptist sect of Jacob Hutter,
which was part of the Radical Reformation. The group is also called the Society
of Brothers and the Hutterian Brethren. The basic theology of the group is Protestant
but, according to former members and other critics, the group exercises inappropriate
control over the members and practices shunning and
other forms of spiritual abuse.
Buddha: Siddhartha Gautama Buddha (enlightened
one) was born about 560 BC in northeastern India and, according to legend,
received spiritual enlightenment through meditation.
During his lifetime, his spiritual insights and teachings became a major alternative
to Hinduism throughout India. Diverse versions of his
teachings can be found worldwide today. See Buddhism.
Buddhas Universal Church, San Francisco, CA: Similar to Buddhism
Buddhism: World religion based on the spiritual
teachings of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha. There are a number
of versions or sects of Buddhism generally teaching paths to Nirvana (enlightenment
or bliss) though the four noble truths (recognizing existence and source of
suffering) and the eightfold path (correct understanding, behavior and meditation).
Some variations of Buddhism include traditional Theravada schools of India,
Mahayana Buddhism, which became very popular in China and Japan, and Tibetan
Buddhism (Lamaism) in Tibet. Two more recent forms that have had great influence
in America are Zen and Nichiren Shoshu
Builders, Norman Paulsen, Oasis, NV: New Age,
Father-Mother God, enlightenment.
Builders of the Adytum, Paul Foster Case, Los Angeles, CA: Occult,
Kabbalah, Tarot, spiritual alchemy,
Burning Man Festival, Black Rock Desert, NV: An annual festival celebrating
neo-paganism and Satanism. The
name comes from the culmination of the festival, in which a wooden man with
outstretched arms (resembling a crucifix) is burned by the crowd.
Buzzworm: New Age/environmental
C.O.B.U.: See Church of Bible Understanding.
Cabalah: See Kabbalah.
Caelum Moor, Arlington, TX: Private park (now closed) containing menhirs
(large upright stones) similar to those found at Stonehenge. Newspaper reports
claim trespassers have used the site for pagan ceremonies. See Stonehenge.
Campbell, Joseph: Best known for his book and
PBS series with Bill Moyers, The Power of Myth,
which teaches all religions are based on common mythological themes, best interpreted
through a New Age world view.
CAN: See Cult Awareness Network.
Canfield, Jack: New Age education author, editor
of popular Chicken Soup books. Very influential in the public school
Cantillation Research Foundation, John Diamond, Valley Cottage, NY:
New Age, pantheism, All is God,
All is Mother.
CARP: See Collegiate Association for the Research of
Castaneda, Carlos: New Age author of The Teachings
of Don Juan series. He helped popularize Native American
shamanism, the hallucinogenic peyote,
and New Age occultism.
Castle Rising, Denver, CO: Paganism, magic,
psychic impressions, moon festivals, crystals.
Publishes the Castle Rising newsletter.
Catholicism: See Roman Catholicism.
CAUSA: Organization affiliated with the Unification
Cayce, Edgar: See Association
For Research and Enlightenment.
Celestine Prophecy, The: A best-selling
New Age book by James Redfield that
teaches enlightenment through the fictional Nine Insights contained
in secret manuscripts written by Maya natives in the jungles of Peru.
Celticism, Celts: The Celts were a group of related
tribes whose territory extended throughout Europe early in the first millennium
AD, but who are most commonly associated with the British
Isles. The Celts worshipped local deities (frequently associated with nature),
often served by a priestly class of Druids. Human sacrifice
was important to Druidic religion. Modern neo-pagans
frequently claims to be Celtic, although the modern beliefs and practices bear
little resemblance to ancient Celticism.
Celtic Christianity: Augustine of Canterbury evangelized England in
the late 6th - early 7th centuries. His work was later taken by Patrick to Ireland,
who is largely credited with establishing the Celtic church. Celtic Christianity
was heavily influenced by the Roman Catholic Church, to which it was allied,
although many individuals claim a greater reverence for nature in the Celtic
tradition. Differences in practice within the Celtic church were gradually eradicated
during the Middle Ages as the Roman papacy asserted its authority over Ireland.
Modern groups that claim to revive Celtic Christianity are frequently a mixture
of Protestantism and Roman Catholicism,
with few legitimate ties to the early Celtic church. Nonetheless, these groups
should not be confused with neo-pagan groups that also
claim to be Celtic.
Center for Action and Contemplation, Albuquerque, NM: Yoga,
Center for Advanced Communication and Training, Carrollton, TX: New
Age, hypnosis, Neuro-Linguistic Programming.
Center for Alternate Realities, Durango, CO: Metaphysics,
crystals, shamanism, runes,
Tarot Cards, guided meditation,
Center for Personal and Planetary Empowerment, Austin, TX: New
Age, meditation, alchemy.
Center For Spiritual Awareness, Roy Eugene Davis, Lakemont, GA: New
Age, enlightenment, mans higher self, cosmic-consciousness.
Center for Studies on New Religions, Massimo Introvigne, Torino, Italy:
Introvigne studies new and alternative religious groups. He and his work, which
is frequently supportive of new religions, are often used by alternative religious
groups to support their activities when pursuing governmental recognition.
Center for Wisdom Spirituality, Paradise, PA: Universalism.
Publishes the Interconnections newsletter.
Center for World Networking, Soguel, CA: UFO, psychic,
yoga, Universal Energy.
Center of the Light, Great Barrington, MA: New
Age, Native American religions, reflexology.
Publishes The Light Journal.
The Centers Network: See est.
Centre de Recherche sur lEnergie Humaine Universelle (CREHU):
See Spiritual Human Yoga.
Centric, Houston, TX: New Age periodical.
Cesar, San Antonio, TX: Assistant to Papa
Jim. Occult spells, hexes, curses,
voodoo, witchcraft (see Wicca).
Chakras: New Age, said
to be centers for cosmic energy in the human body that are aligned to allow
the Kundalini energy to proceed from the base of the
spine to the top of the forehead.
Champaign-Urbana Church of Christ: Member, International
Churches of Christ.
Channeling: New Age term for the occult
practice of Spiritualism (also called trance channeling).
Spirit beings, Ascended Masters, deceased humans, familiar
spirits, or animal spirits allegedly communicate important messages by temporarily
entering the body and controlling the voice of a host (channel or medium).
Most channelers give the same basic message, that man is a God. Profile
Chapel of Prayer, Eleanor Button, Houston, TX: Psychic
readings, channeling, crystals,
astrology, self-healing meditation.
Cheetham, John: See Great Lakes Society
for Biblical Research.
Chen Tao, Hon-ming Chen (The Right Way, God's
Salvation Church, God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation): Apocalyptic
Taiwanese UFO group that drew international media attention
when they predicted that God would descend to their Garland, TX, headquarters
in a flying saucer on March 31, 1998. Publishes Practical Evidence and Study
of the World of God and Buddha, God's Descending in Clouds (Flying Saucers)
on Earth to Save People. Profile
Chi: Invisible energy or force alleged to make up
the universe and flow through all living things via meridians or chakras.
See Taoism, Yin and Yang, Acupuncture.
Chicago Bible Students, Chicago, IL: Largest and best known of the independent
"Bible student" groups. Reprints the early writings of Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society founder Charles Taze Russell, including Divine
Plan of the Ages.
Children of God: See The Family (Children of God).
Chinmaya International Foundation, Swami Chinmayananda, Piercy, CA:
Eastern mysticism, yoga, meditation.
Publishes the MU News.
Chinmoy, Sri: Hindu philosophy, meditation.
Chinook Learning Center, Fritz and Vivienne Hull, Clinton, WA: Native
American Earth-Spirit philosophy, shamanism, meditation,
called one of the most important New Age centers.
Chiromancy: See Palm Reading.
Chiropractic Medicine: A holistic health practice
whereby practitioners use a form of manipulative therapy to treat musculoskeletal
problems. While many chiropractors are not engaging in alternative religious
activities via their practice, critics claim that some chiropractors engage
in chiropractic medicine in accordance with the Taoist
principle of facilitating the flow of chi.
Choice Experience, A, Jerry Stocking, Chetek, WI: New
Age, Neuro-Linguistic Programming, other-than-consciousness
Choosing Light, Mill Valley, CA: New Age, meditation,
telepathic communication from Higher Dimension Guides and teachers.
Chopra, Deepak: Noted New
Age and health author and lecturer. See Ayurvedic
Medicine. Profile available.
Christ: Based on the Greek christos meaning
anointed one, equivalent to the Hebrew messiah. Generally
used in the Old Testament of one who has been anointed with oil and/or set apart
for a specific mission, as was David, the king of Israel (see 1 Sam. 16:13).
Specifically used to speak of the promised messiah/savior of Israel and the
world. Christians believe this to be Jesus of Nazareth,
who died to atone for human sin. Other religions believe in a succession of
Christ figures through history, sometimes including Jesus, who were great teachers.
New Age groups sometimes understand the term Christ as a reference
to the deity found in all humanity (the Cosmic Christ). Thus, Jesus was conscious
of his deity or the Christ within and others can have this same
Christ-consciousness by realizing that
they, too, are divine. Other religious leaders have historically claimed to
hold the office or ministry of Christ including Unification
Church founder Rev. Sun Myung Moon. Biblical warnings are given for false
Christs (Mark 13:22). Scripture also speaks of an antichrist and of antichrists
who stand against and/or instead of the true Christ (1 John 2:18).
Christ Cathedral for Divine Abundance, Alexius Bassey, London: Universalism,
Age term expressing the belief that Christ is a divine
potential in all human beings of which only some people are aware or conscious,
rather than a unique title for Jesus.
Christ Family, Charles McHugh: McHugh, a.k.a. Lightening Amen, claims
to be the incarnation of Jesus. Followers dress in robes,
no shoes, practice vegetarianism.
Christ Light Community: See New Age Church of
Christ the Savior Brotherhood: See Holy Order
Christadelphianism, John Thomas: Teaches that Jesus
is a created being, Holy Spirit is Power of God, and salvation
by works. Also rejects the ideas of heaven and hell. It has several splinter
Christian Community: Based on teachings of Rudolf Steiner, founder of
the Anthroposophical Society.
Christian Fellowship, The: See Potters
Christian Foundation, Canyon County, CA: See Alamo
Christian Identity movement: The belief that
the true identity of the ten lost tribes of Israel is the white, Anglo-Saxon
race. The belief is similar to but distinct from the doctrine of British
Israelism. A number of independent churches and organizations (including
some militant racist groups) make up the general movement. Most deny the Trinity.
Some teach a form of the Serpent Seed doctrine, believing
that Jews are descendants of Eves alleged sexual relations with the serpent
(Genesis 3) and are thus not fully human. Many also hold that non-Whites are
descended from the union of Cain and a woman from a supposed pre-Adamite race.
Christian Millennial Fellowship, Hartford, CT: Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society splinter group (see Bible Students).
Publishes The New Creation periodical.
Christian Prayer Center, Mother Martin, Washington, D.C.: Native
American spirituality and rituals, voodoo.
Christian Renewal Ministry, Saratoga, CA: Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society splinter group (see Bible Students).
Christian Rose Cross Church, Olympia, WA: Based on the teachings of
Max Heindel (see Rosicrucian Fellowhip), Cosmic
Christ, Universal religion.
Christian Science, Mary Baker Eddy, Boston,
MA: Officially called Church of Christ, Scientist. Eddys teaching heavily
indebted to Phineas P. Quimby, a mesmerist.
Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures functions as a virtual second
canon of Scripture. Views God as infinite Mind, the animating divine Principle
of all that is real and good. Matter is unreal; thus, so are sickness
and death, which are overcome by believing that we are Mind. Seeking medical
help is discouraged, frequently resulting in preventable deaths. Christ
is the divine manifestation of God most fully seen in Jesus, who
only seemed to die. The Holy Ghost is Divine Science, that is, Christian
Science. The orthodox doctrine of the Trinity is rejected
as polytheistic. Many New Age ideas have historical roots in Christian Science
and related Mind Science groups. Profile
Christianity, Jesus Christ: Major world religion
developed in the first century AD based on the belief that Jesus
of Nazareth was the promised Messiah or Christ of Israel.
Followers, called Christians, were initially viewed as a sect of Judaism.
It quickly developed as a separate religion as Jewish Christians became outnumbered
by non-Jewish converts and, through a strong missionary emphasis, Christianity
became a diverse worldwide movement. Their scripture is the Bible, which contains
the Jewish Scriptures (Old Testament) and the Christian Scriptures (New Testament).
Except for cults, aberrant sects, and Liberal
Christianity, those who claim to be Christians have historically believed
the following: There is only one true God eternally revealed in three distinct
Persons - the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (the Trinity).
Human beings are sinners who (without the grace of God received through faith
in Christ) are eternally lost. Jesus, who is God in the flesh, died on the cross
and rose physically from the dead as the sole and sufficient payment for the
sins of humanity. See Gospel, Born Again,
Fundamental Christianity, Evangelical
Christianity, Protestant Christianity, Orthodox
Christianity, Roman Catholicism, Salvation
by Grace, Salvation by Works.
Christward Ministry, Escondido, CA: New Age,
guided meditation, Christ-consciousness.
Chrysalis: Swedenborg Foundation
Chuang-tzu: Legendary founder of Taoism.
Church, The, Jim Roberts: See Brethren.
Church at San Diego, Paul and Patrica Carroll: Current leaders Vincent
and Patricia Izacic (a.k.a. Xavier). Shepherding,
Church For Positive Living, Dean Davis Bedford, TX: Native
American spirituality, yoga, creative meditation,
Church in York, Bernard Haygood, York, PA: Shepherding,
Church of All Worlds, Otter Zell, Berkeley, CA: Occult/Pagan
theology. Publishes the Green Egg periodical.
Church of Bible Understanding (C.O.B.U.): A
controversial network of churches, headquartered in New York, that historically
has been charged with spiritual abuse due to
legalism, undue influence, and control mechanisms.
Church of Christ: See Churches of Christ.
Church of Christ-Consciousness: See Center of the
Church of Christ Jesus: See International Churches of
Church of Christ, Scientist: Official name for Christian
Church of Christ, Temple Lot, Granville Hedrick, Independence, MO: Splinter
group that broke away from the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter Day Saints.
Church of Christ with the Elijah Message, Otto Fetting, Independence,
MO: Splinter group that broke away from the Reorganized Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
Church of Christ with the Elijah Message, Greenwood, MO: 1998 splinter
group from Otto Fetting's group of the same name.
Church of Cosmic Origin, Hope Troxell, June Lake, CA: New
Age, Community, Cosmic Christianity, additional scripture includes The
Book of Enoch.
Church of Divine Influence: Alignment with the Divine Will of
the Wise Movement of the Universe.
Church of Essential Science, Scottsdale, AZ:
Kabbalah, cosmic laws of Divine spark to achieve salvation,
God was All in the beginning.
Church of E Yada di Shi-ite, Mark Probert, Mountain
View, CA: New Age, channeling,
Church of Freethought: A social organization for atheists that provides
the opportunities for socializing, community service, and social support offered
by theistic churches.
Church of God and True Holiness, Robert Carr, Raleigh, NC: Allegedly
practice slavery and mind control.
Church of God Evangelistic Association, David J.
Smith, Richardson, TX: Armstrongism splinter group.
Denies Trinity, personality of the Holy Spirit, and the
bodily resurrection. Teaches annihilationism,
salvation by law-keeping, Sabbatarianism, and
that man can become a member of the God family (Godhead). Publishes
Newswatch Magazine and Newswatch radio and television programs.
Church of God, (Abrahamic Faith), Wenatchee, WA: Adventist
group, similar to the Bible Students groups; rejects
the Trinity, teaches annihilationism.
Publishes Notes For Bible Students newsletter.
Church of God Family Counseling Center, William Miller, Dallas, TX:
Miller claims to be the savior.
Church of God General Conference, Oregon, IL: Rejects the Trinity.
Main headquarters for the Church of God, Abrahamic Faith.
Church of God, International, Garner Ted Armstrong,
Tyler, TX: Armstrongism break-off group. Armstrong
recently stepped down from his top leadership position amidst allegations of
sexual misconduct and litigation. Publishes the International News and
Twentieth Century Watch periodicals.
Church of God Philadelphia Era, David Fraser, Pasadena, CA: Armstrongism
break-off group. Publishes the Proclaim Liberty magazine.
Church of God (Seventh Day), Denver, CO: One of the older Sabbatarian
churches in America. Publishes Bible Advocate.
Church of God, Seventh Day, Caldwell, ID: Sabbatarianism;
observes Sabbath and Feast days; baptism necessary for salvation (see baptismal
regeneration). Publishes The Herald of Truth newsletter.
Church of God (7th Day) Salem, WV: Rejects the Trinity; teaches Sabbatarianism;
observes Feast days and Sabbath; baptism required for salvation (see baptismal
regeneration). Publishes The Advocate of Truth newsletter.
Church of God, The Eternal, Raymond C. Cole, Eugene, OR: Armstrongism
splinter group; Sabbatarianism; observes Sabbath
and Feast Days.
Church of Hakeem, Hakeem Rasheed, Oakland, CA: Teaches how the god within
makes people rich.
Church of Illumination, Quartertown, PA: New Age,
Divine Spark in all humans, Gnosticism, similar to
Church of Israel, Day Gayman, Schell City, MO: Radical Christian
Identity movement sect. Publishes The Watchman.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The,
Joseph Smith, Salt Lake City, UT: (Latter-day Saints, LDS, Mormonism) Main body
of Mormonism; recognizes Brigham Young as Smiths successor. Smith claimed
that the Father and Son appeared to him and called him to restore the true Church.
LDS Church teaches that God the Father was once a man and was exalted to Godhood.
God (and his heavenly Wife) begat billions of spirit children, the firstborn
of whom was Jesus. Lucifer was the leader of Gods rebellious spirit children.
Those spirits who did not rebel become human beings in order to begin process
potentially leading to exaltation to Godhood. Jesus, however, became a God while
only a spirit. He organized our world and is Jehovah, the God of Israel. He
is a separate and subordinate God to Elohim, the Father. A distinction is made
between the Holy Ghost, who is a personage of Spirit, and the Holy Spirit. The
latter is a divine energy, force, or spiritual essence that fills the universe
and is used by all three members of the Godhead in the exercise and accomplishment
of their will. The Church rejects the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity.
It also redefines salvation by grace to refer simply
to resurrection. Almost all humans will be resurrected into one of three kingdoms
of glory, the least of which is far superior to anything known in this life.
Entry into the higher kingdoms, and ones rank there, depends not only
upon the atonement of Christ, but also upon ones good works. Achievement
of the highest potential within the highest kingdomGodhoodrequires
complete obedience to all the laws and ordinances of the gospel.
The Bible, Book of Mormon, Pearl of Great Price, and Doctrine and
Covenants are all considered scripture. Publishes Church News and
Ensign magazine. Profile available.
Research material available.
Church of Jesus Power, E.S. Cooke, Sr., Boulder City, NV: Astral
projection via Jesus Powered Sakraments (sic) which changes
mans electro-magnetic polarity.
Church of Light, Elbert Benjamin, Los Angeles, CA: New
Age, Associated with the ???Brotherhood of Light,
rejects heaven and hell. Atonement to be found in each persons own path.
Church of Metaphysical Christianity, Russell Flexer, Sarasota, FL: New
Age, Jesus is Ascended Master, Creation by Vibrations.
Publishes Metaphysical Messenger magazine.
Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ Apostolic Faith: Oneness
Church of Perfect Liberty, Tokuchika Tokuhara, Glendale, CA: Zen
Buddhism, man is manifestation of god.
Church of Satan, Anton Szandor LaVey,
San Francisco, CA: Satanism, occult,
incantations, festival days include Spring equinox and Halloween.
LaVey, author of the Satanic Bible, founded the church in 1966 and died
in 1997 after which his daughter, Church of Satan High Priestess Karla LaVey,
claimed leadership. The church has claimed as many 10,000 members. LaVey, a
former lion tamer, organist, hypnotist, psychic, artist, and photographer, did
not believe in a literal, personal devil, but turned to Satanic imagery to provoke
a reaction and illustrate his disdain for Christianity.
Church of Scientology, L. Ron Hubbard: Humans
are immortal spiritual beings whose experience extends beyond a single lifetime
(reincarnation), and whose capabilities are unlimited,
though presently imprisoned by matter, energy, space, and time (MEST). Salvation
is the recovery of spiritual freedom, ability, independence and serenity, including
freedom from the endless cycle of birth and death (reincarnation), and full
awareness and ability independent of the body, i.e., being able to control
matter, energy, space, and time. These god-like powers are achieved through
auditing, a process whereby engrams, (the mental recordings of past
moments of pain and unconsciousness), and other barriers to such states are
removed, abilities are regained, and greater awareness achieved. Auditing can
last for years and may cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Teachings are
also advanced through affiliated business management companies such as Sterling
Management Systems, the drug prevention program Narcanon,
and in public schools though Way to Happiness. The writings
and recorded spoken words of L.Ron Hubbard (contained in over 500,000 pages
of writings and over 2,000 tape-recorded public lectures) constitute the scripture
of the religion, his book Dianetics, the Modern Science of Mental Health
being foundational. Scientology publishes several magazines including Advance,
High Winds, and Source; also several newspapers and newsletters including
The Auditor, Tech News, KSW News and the FSM Newsletter. Scientology
has a history of alleged abuse and illegal activities, and is fighting legal
battles in countries all over the world. Profile
available. Research material available.
Church of Seven Arrows, Wheatridge, CO: Native American
spirituality, shamanism, paganism.
Publishes Thunderbow II newsletter.
Church of the Brigade of Light, Charlotte, NC: Divine Mother in everyone,
Jesus called the Gentle Brother, Metaphysical
philosophy. Publishes the Crystals of Light newsletter.
Church of the Final Judgement: See Process Church
of the Final Judgement.
Church of the Firstborn of the Fulness of
Times, The, Joel LeBaron, Colonia LeBaron, Chihuahua, Mexico: Polygamous,
Mormon Fundamentalist splinter group organized in 1956
by Joel LeBaron, who was assassinated in 1972, allegedly by his brother Ervil,
who formed a rival splinter group, The Church of the Lamb
of God. The assassination was allegedly carried out on the grounds of the
Blood Atonement Doctrine.
Church of the Great God, John Ritenbaugh Charlotte, NC: Armstrongism
break-off group. Publishes the Forerunner newsletter.
Church of the Lamb of God, The, Ervil LeBaron,
Salt Lake City, UT: Polygamous, Mormon Fundamentalist
splinter group formed in 1974 by Ervil LeBaron, who was removed from The
Church of the Firstborn of the Fulness of Times following accusations that
he was responsible for his brothers assassination. The church has also
been suspected in the deaths of other rival Mormon Fundamentalists,
including Rulon Allred, founder of the Corporation
of the Presiding Elder of the Apostolic United Brethren. LaBaron died in
a Utah State Prison in 1981.
Church of the Living Stone Mission for the Coming Days,
Bang-ik Ha, Seoul, Korea: Predicted Jesus would return
on October 28, 1992. See False Prophecy.
Church of the Most High God, Marvel, TX: God the
Father is male and the Holy Spirit is female or God the Mother.
Church of the Most High Goddess, Mary Ellen Tracy, Los Angeles, CA:
Revival of Egyptian religions, temple priestess, salvation through sexual relations.
Church of the Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness (MSIA),
John-Roger Hinkins, Santa Monica, CA: New Age, seminars,
karma, reincarnation, spirit
guide/possession, visualization, hypnosis,
Church of the New Birth: See Foundation Church
of Divine Truth.
Church of the New Jerusalem: See Swedenborg Foundation.
Church of the Plains Indians: Native American spirituality,
Church of the Tree of Life, San Francisco, CA: No doctrine of God, sin,
etc., only doctrine is anything goes within legal limits.
Church of the Trinity, A. Stuart Otto, San Marcos, CA: New
Age; By Jesus C.E.R.A. (Crucifixion, Entombment, Resurrection and
Ascension) he imparted his Consciousness into the psyche of all.
Church of the White Eagle Lodge, Jean LeFevre, Montgomery,
TX: Divine or Christ light in each person, visualization,
yoga, chakras, astrology.
Publishes Newsletter for The Americas.
Church of Universal Love, Linda Foreman, El Paso, TX: Similar to I
AM Movement, use teachings of St. Germain, channeling,
guided meditation. Publishes Cosmic Channelling
Church of Unlimited Devotion: Worships Jerry Garcia of the rock-and-roll
band, The Greatful Dead. They believe Garcias guitar is a channel for
Church of Y, Tylwyth Teg, Smyrna, GA: Pagan,
Church Universal and Triumphant (CUT), Mark
Prophet, Corwin Springs, MT: New Age, Great
White Brotherhood, God-consciousness, similar to I AM
movement. Currently led by Elizabeth Clare Prophet. Profile
Churches of Christ: The independent Churches of Christ
movement was one of several associations and denominations that developed from
Alexander Campbell, Walter Scott and Barton W. Stones restoration movement
of the early 19th century, which was designed to promote unity among Protestants.
Many (but not all) Churches of Christ today, however, differ from traditional
Protestant doctrine in two key areas. Many maintain that water baptism and/or
other commandments (rather than salvation by grace through
faith alone) are a requirement for salvation (see Baptismal
regeneration, Salvation by works). Some also believe
that todays Churches of Christ are the only true churches on earth and
that they can literally trace their history to the first century church in Jerusalem.
Circle, Madison, WI: Pagan newspaper.
Circle Network News Mt. Horeb, WI: Paganism,
shamanism, Wicca, goddess
worship. Publishes the Circle Network News newsletter.
Circle of Life, Dorothy Espiau, Houston, TX: Healing planet Earth, forces
of Divinity, crystals, believes dolphins are alien beings.
Circle of Light, Dallas, TX: New Age periodical.
Circle of Light, Inc., Honolulu, HI: New Age,
follows Lord Michael, astral planes, channeling.
City of the Sun Foundation, Columbus, NM: Channeling,
karma, man is part of God , man is perfect.
Clairvoyance: The supposed paranormal ability
to see psychic information, including historical
or future events or other phenomena, that cannot be discerned naturally through
the five material senses. See ESP, Divination.
Cleage, Albert B., Jr.: See Pan
African Orthodox Christian Church.
Clifford E. Hobbs Foundation, Newport, WA: Hedonistic theology.
Cognitive Dissonance: A mental, emotional, or
psychological state which results from attempting to hold two totally incompatible
beliefs or opposing attitudes at the same time. See Double
Cole-Whittaker, Terry: New
Age guru, teachings derive from Religious Science.
College of Divine Metaphysics, Joseph Garduno, Glendora, CA: New
Age, metaphysical teaching.
Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles
(CARP): College and University outreach of Rev. Sun Myung Moons
Comfort Corner Church, Lawrenceville, GA: UFOs, metaphysical
Common Boundary, Chevy Chase, MD: New Age
Communion Letter, San Antonio, TX: UFO periodical.
Community of Jesus, Orleans, MS: Thought to be involved in shepherding
and mind control.
Concept Therapy, Thurman Fleet, San Antonio, TX: New
Age, stress management seminars, book title Rays Of The Dawn. Publishes
The Beamer newsletter.
Concerned Christians, Monte Kim Miller,
Denver, CO: Ironically, begun in the early 1980s as a Christian
ministry to expose cults and false teaching, Miller's organization
began to take on cult-like characteristics in later years. Becoming increasingly
controversial and bizarre, Miller's group drew national media attention in 1998
when over 50 followers fled the Denver area and disappeared after Miller predicted
the Apocalypse was to begin and that Denver was to
be destroyed by an earthquake on October 10. Miller, who claims to be one of
the two end-time prophets mentioned in the Revelation 11, published Report
from Concerned Christians and Take Heed Update. Produced Our Foundation
radio program. Profile
Conciliation Ministries, Dusean Berkich Lawrence, KS: Conversion should
be inward to self, not to Jesus.
Confraternity of Deists, Homosassa Springs, FL: Reject sin, no need
for a Savior, no consciousness after death.
Confucianism, Chiu King (King Fu-tzu or Confucius - Kung the Master):
A world religion based on the teachings of Chiu King who, according to tradition,
was born in Lu, China about 550 BC Chiu King promoted peace and social harmony
through the traditions of the ancestors. He is said to have collected, edited
and written commentaries on four ancient manuscripts (including the I
Ching). He also wrote Chun Chiu (The Annals
of Spring and Autumn) These documents comprise the Five Classics and along
with the Four Books (a collection of his sayings) form the basis of Confucianism.
Doctrines include ancestor worship, devotion to family elders, and right conduct
based on the inherent goodness of man.
Congregation of God, San Jose, CA: See Answers Research
Congregation of God Seventh Day, John Pinkston: Armstrongism
break-off group. Publishes The Herald magazine.
Congregation of the Firstborn, Raymond Glenn, Grapeland, TX: Teaches
that Jesus is not God; also sabbatarianism,
Congregation of Yahweh, Pittsburgh, PA: Sacred
name group, sabbatarianism, Old Testament
feast days and dietary laws kept, the Holy Spirit is the power of God. Publishes
The Restoration Message newsletter.
Conscious Development of Body, Mind, and Soul: Organization of Teri
Conscious Living Foundation, Drain, OR: New Age,
states of consciousness, visualization. Publishes
the Gentle Place and Quiet Space magazine.
Consciousness Connection, Las Cruces, NM: New Age,
visualization, automatic writing,
rebirthing, astral projection.
Constellation, Elton Powers, Dallas, TX: New Age,
African spirituality, animal spirituality, yoga for pets.
Contemplations, Inc., Ed Heinemann, Durango, CO: The Universe is alive
and speaks. Life is crystalized light.
Continuum Foundation, Chino Valley, AZ: New Age,
dynamic energies, consciousness raising teachings.
Cooneyites (Go Preachers, No Name Church, Two
by Twos): Meet in homes. Jesus is only part human and part
God. Holy Spirit empowered Jesus to live sinless life and can do the same for
any person. Salvation by works.
Cornerstone, Jim Rector, Texarkana, TX: Armstrongism
splinter group. Publishes Cornerstone.
Corporation of the President of the Fundamentalist Church, Rulon T.
Jeffs, Sandy, Utah: Mormon Fundamentalist splinter group
of between eight and twelve thousand members. The group has a strong presence
in Hilldale, Utah, and Colorado City, Arizona (once known as Short Creek), which
was the site of a government effort to prosecute polygamists in 1953.
Corporation of the
Presiding Elder of the Apostolic United Brethren, Rulon Allred, Bluffdale,
UT: Polygamous, Mormon Fundamentalist splinter group
of between five and eight thousand members in Idaho, Nevada, Montana and the
United Kingdom. Allred was murdered in 1977 by members of a rival Mormon
Cosmerism: Mixture of Christianity and Buddhism,
but embraces all religions as having truth.
Cosmic Awareness Communications, Olympia, WA: New
Age, channeling the Force which also spoke through Jesus,
Krishna and Edgar Cayce (see Association
for Research and Enlightenment).
Cosmic Christ: See Christ.
Cosmic Communication Commune, Decorah, IA: All religions have same common
roots, communication from the cosmic Spirit.
Cosmic Light of Peace Center: See House of Divine Bread.
Cosmic Science Research Foundation, Edward Palmer, Portland, OR: New
Age, UFO information given by Hierarchical Intelligence
on the various planes of consciousness.
Cosmic Wisdom, Clark Wilkerson, Honolulu, HI: New
Age, Kabbala, psychic, ESP,
cosmic consciousness, Universal Mind.
Council of Light, Honolulu, HI: Ascended Masters,
similar to I AM movement; channeling.
Council of the Magickal Arts, Austin, TX: Paganism,
witchcraft (see Wicca), goddess
worship, ritual magic.
Course in Miracles, A, Helen Schucman:
New Age book given through the channeled
voice of Jesus. The world, sin, and sickness
are all illusions. Teaches that man is still in heaven with God and this life
is a dream. Profile available.
Coven: A group two or more people (ideally thirteen)
practicing witchcraft (see Wicca) or occult arts. Also
called a clan.
Coven Gardens, Boulder, CO: Occult, paganism,
Wicca, revival of Egyptian deities.
Covered Bridge Canyon, Spanish Fork, UT: Pantheism,
channeling, denies reality of death.
Covey, Stephen: Mormon author
with New Age affinities. Author of the best-selling,
7 Habits of Highly Effective People, and several sequels.
Creation Calendar, Verlis W. Johnson, Kermit, TX: Sabbatarianism,
necessity of keeping the Law, Feast Days, etc., for salvation (see salvation
Creme, Benjamin: See Tara Center.
Crossroads Church of Christ: See International Churches
Crowley, Aleister: An English magician and Occultist.
Crowley (18751947) was known for sex magic, homosexual rituals, and a
fascination with drugs, blood and torture. Headed the British branch of Ordo
Templi Orientis (OTO), founded the Abbey of Thelema
at Cefalu in Sicily. Author of Diary of a Drug Fiend and Magick in
Theory and Practice.
Crusade of Innocence: Believed to be a splinter group of Process
Church of the Final Judgment.
Chrysalis Foundation, Durango, CO: Metaphysical
and holistic healing center.
Crystals Consciousness, Warren Klausner San Diego, CA: New
Age, crystal healing, Kundalini,
Crystal Horizons, Santa Barbara, CA: New Age,
Crystallomancy: Divination or fortune telling
by gazing into a crystal rock or crystal ball.
Crystal Pathway, Denver, CO: New Age/Occult
Crystals: Many though not all New Agers believe
that gems (especially Crystals) possess mystical, esoteric,
spiritual powers to bring the bearer health, wealth and good fortune.
Cult: See the Definitions section in the introduction.
Cult Awareness Network (CAN): Headed by Cynthia Kisser
and based in Chicago, IL, this was once the largest secular cult watch organization
or anti-cult group in America. According to Kisser, between 1991 and 1996 CAN
was the victim of approximately 50 lawsuits directly or indirectly sponsored
by members of the Church of Scientology, an organization
considered by CAN to be a dangerous cult. CAN eventually lost one of those
civil suits, which resulted in CAN filing bankruptcy. On October 23, 1996, the
Cult Awareness Networks name, logo, and phone number were sold to a Scientology-related
law firm as part of a $20,000 purchase of CAN assets in the federal bankruptcy
court. Kisser warns that anyone now contacting CAN should be aware that they
are very likely talking with Scientologists.
Cult of Confession: One of eight criteria
of Mind Control according to Robert
Liftons theory of Thought Reform. A system that requires members to
disclose to their leaders or superiors the personal thoughts, attitudes, and
actions that do not conform to the groups ideals. This practice diminishes
healthy personal boundaries and privacy, and may facilitate additional abuses.
Cumorah Books, Independence, MO: Affiliated with the more conservative
Restoration Branches of the RLDS
Church. Publishes Restoration Voice, The Vision.
Daily Word: A monthly publication of Unity School of
Dalai Lama: The spiritual leader of Tibetan
Dallas Fellowship, Inc., Arlington, TX: New Age;
uses The URANTIA Book as their main text. Publishes The Circle
Dang, Luong Minh: Founder of Spiritual Human Yoga.
Davera Mission Church, Korea: Alternate name for Church
of the Living Stone Mission for the Coming Days.
David, John: See John-David Learning Institute.
David, Moses (King David): Pseudonym for David Berg, the late founder
of The Family (Children of God).
Davis, Haviland: Albany, NY: Leader of a Bible Students
splinter group from the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society.
Dawn Bible Students, East Rutherford, NJ: One of the original Bible
Students splinter groups formed after Joseph Rutherford assumed leadership
of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society.
Dayspring Resources, Leonie Rosenstiel, New York, NY: Hypnosis,
Reiki, yoga, reflexology,
de Mello, Anthony: An Indian-born Jesuit priest, who wrote a number
of New Age books that were bestsellers in many countries.
His works include One Minute Wisdom, One Minute Nonsense, Wellsprings: A
Book of Spiritual Exercises, and Walking on Water. In 1998, over
a decade after his death, the Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith (a Vatican
commission) denounced de Mello's writings. They warned of false teachings in
his works, including a denial of objective morality and the claim that all religion,
including Christianity, are obstacles to truth.
Delphi School, Sheridan, OR: Uses the teachings of L.
Ron Hubbard, founder of the Church of Scientology.
Demand for Purity: One of eight criteria
of Mind Control according to Robert
Lifton's theory of Thought Reform. An environment of blame and guilt based
on an impossible ideal of human behavior or perfection. This shame-based culture
punishes failure and can even subtly train members to punish themselves for
their inability to live up to the group's ideals or standards. See Brainwashing.
under the direction of Satan who seek to destroy Gods
purpose and people. Demons are invisible, spiritual beings (Ephesians 6:12),
are organized and have supernatural power and knowledge (Matthew 12:24, Revelation
16:14), can possess humans and animals, (Luke 8:2, Mark 5:13), and can inspire
false doctrine (1 Timothy 4:1).
Denver, John: Prominent New Age singer who promoted
est, Yoga, Transcendental
Meditation, and the Windstar Foundation before his
death in 1997.
Deprogramming: A coercive attempt to dissuade
an individual of religious or ideological convictions believed to be harmful,
through a concentrated (usually two to three days) counseling procedure designed
to produce a sudden "snapping out." Deprogramming was developed in the 1970s
by Ted Patrick and others as a way to rescue family members who were perceived
to have undergone negative personality change after joining destructive cults.
Often presented as an antidote for brainwashing
or mind control, some deprogrammers rationalized
the unethical use of force and coercion to rescue victims by illegally holding
them against their will (abduction or "snatching") in a process known as "involuntary"
deprogramming. Watchman Fellowship does not support or condone such illegal
and unethical behavior. Not to be confused with Exit
Deseret Shadow Church: See Church of Essential
Devil: See Satan.
Di Mambro, Joseph: See Order of the Solar Temple.
Dianetics: Bestselling bible of the Church
Discover Seminars, Irving, TX: New Age, stress
Discovery, West Valley City, UT: Anti-Christian,
Jesus is the Devil.
Disfellowshipping: As practiced by the LDS and many
other groups, this is a level of church discipline involving a probationary
period of restricted privileges, but retaining church membership. As practiced
by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, it is an
alternate term for excommunication, being completely cut off from
Jehovahs organization; see Shunning.
Dispensing of Existence: One of eight
criteria of Mind Control according to Robert
Lifton's theory of Thought Reform. The organization's dogma determines whether
or not other groups or individuals have the right to exist. All alternative
belief systems or organizations are considered illegitimate. In extreme cases
this mindset can promote violence or murder.
Divali: Hindu philosophy of Enlightenment.
Divination: The biblical term describing attempts
to gain hidden knowledge supernaturally, usually about the future, apart from
the God of the Bible (Ezekiel 21:2225, Acts 16:16). Most often props are
involved such as the hand (palm reading), the stars (astrology),
cards (Tarot), or random symbols (I Ching).
Divine Light Center, Swami Omkarananda: Mixture of Hinduism,
voodoo and animal sacrifice.
Divine Light Mission, Maharaj Ji: Hindu/New
Age philosophy, teachings on the God within.
Divine Science, Denver CO: Similar to Christian
Science theology: God is All, man is a part of the All, thus man is God.
Divine Science of Light and Sound, Marina del Rey, CA: New
Age, reincarnation, karma,
Divine Word Foundation, Warner Springs, CA: New Age,
channeled writings, Jesus and Christ
are separate entities.
Dixon, Jeane (19171997): Astrologer,
prognosticator, claimed information was from Christian
God, however she made many false prophecies.
Doctrine and Covenants: One of the scriptures or Standard
Works of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints;
the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
accepts a different version of the work as scripture.
Doctrine Over Person: One of eight
criteria of Mind Control according to Robert
Lifton's theory of Thought Reform. The ideas and doctrines of the leader
and organization overrule the personal experiences, conscience, and integrity
of the individual.
Dominion Press, San Marcos, CA: New Thought,
similar to Christian Science and Unity
School of Christianity. Publishes the Theologia 21 newsletter. Not
to be confused with Dominion Press in Tyler, TX, a controversial but orthodox
Christian publishing house.
Dorene Publishing, Arlington, TX: Occult,
talismans and other pagan memorabilia.
The Door: See Potters
Double Bind: A mental or psychological dilemma
caused when a person receives from a single leader or teacher conflicting messages
or "truths" resulting in no appropriate response or answer. See Cognitive
Dowsing: Form of divination
using a forked rod, a bent wire, or a pendulum. Used to locate people, objects,
or substances, and to diagnose illnesses.
Druids: A priestly caste of the ancient Celtic people
of France and the British Isles. They were the keepers of oral history and law,
and officiates of pagan, occult
religious practices. See Halloween.
Dual Covenant: The belief that the New Testament
(or covenant) applies to gentiles (non-Jews) only. Thus, Jesus
Christ is not the Savior of the Jewish people and they
should relate to God through the earlier Old Testament or Abrahamic covenant.
A similar doctrine called the Plural Covenant theory emphasizes other covenants
in addition to these two major systems.
Dualism: An understanding of reality as existing in two opposite extremes.
Metaphysical dualism sees the universe as existing in two contrary (and sometimes
conflicting) realitiesmind and matter, or spirit and physical, or yin
and yang. Ethical dualism posits a conflict between universal good and an
equal and opposite force of universal evil (e.g., the belief that God and Satan
are equal and opposite beings).
Dungeons and Dragons: Occult, fantasy
role playing game, allegedly uses demonic names and spells found in occult
literature. Some parents have charged that children committed suicide under
the influence of the game.
DuPage Church of Religious Science, Donald E. Burt, Naperville, IL:
Religious Science, use the teachings of Ernest Holmes.
Dyer, Wayne: Prominent New Age writer and spokesman
focusing on business applications, personal transformation and motivational
speaking. Also promotes holistic health, and Buddhism.
Dynamic Monarchianism: A late second-century
heresy denying the Trinity, put forth by Theodotue of Byzantium and later adoped
in modified forms by Paul of Samosata, Noetus and Prazeas.
Eadie, Betty: New Age author of best-sellers, Embraced
by the Light and The Awakening Heart. An active member of the Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Eadie claims to have died, gone to
heaven, and returned to her body (see near-death experiences).
Her books contain a combination of New Age and Mormon beliefs.
Eagles Cry, Denver, CO: New Age/Occult
periodical, includes Egyptian revival, channeling,
Eagles Path, Grand Junction, CO: UFOs,
moon festivals, yoga, rebirthing,
Earth Church of Amargi, St. Louis, MO: Paganism,
ritual magic, witchcraft (see Wicca),
moon festivals, Kabbalah, goddess
Earthmother Therapy Center: Astrology, aura
reading, chakra balancing, channeling,
homeopathy, iridology, numerology,
palmistry, past life regression,
Earthsong, Wendy Moss, Dallas, TX: Journey into Mother Earth.
East West Journal, Syracuse, NY: New Age
Eastern School Press, Talent, OR: New Age, Theosophical,
karma, astral light.
Ebon, Martin: See Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship.
Ecclesia Athletic Association, Eldridge Broussard, Jr., Los Angeles,
CA: Believed to practice controversial forms of mind
control and shepherding.
Eckankar, Paul Twitchell: Mixture of pantheism
and eastern mysticism, astral projection,
Ecstasy, Ojai, CA: New Age, man is God, realized
through sexual encounters, New Age/Hedonism.
Eddy, Mary Baker: See Christian Science.
Edwards, Bishop Luke: See REACH, Inc.
Effective Learning Systems, Edina, MN: Subliminal tapes, visualization,
ESP, deep relaxation techniques.
Elmwood Institute, Fritjof Capra: Internationally recognized New
Age author (The Tao of Physics) and lecturer.
Emmanuel, J. David Davis, Athens, TN: See Bnai
Noah for theological perspective. Publishes The Gap newsletter.
Emerald Circle: Paganism, know the Divine within,
be part of Gaia.
ENERGIE et PARTAGE: See Spiritual Human Yoga.
Enneagram: Occult symbol.
A circle with its circumference divided by nine points; has connections with
the Tree of Life in Kabbalah, astrology,
Epiphany Bible Students Association, Mount Dora, FL: Splinter group
from Laymens Home Missionary Movement, one of the
Bible Students groups that broke away from the Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society.
Erhard, Warner: See est.
Esalen Institute, Michael Murphy, Big Sur, CA: New
Age, one of the original institutions for developing and promoting eastern
mysticism/New Age philosophy.
Esoteric: Hidden or deeper knowledge held by
an elite few. Belief that there are mystical core truths underlying /unifying
religions that are unknown to the uninitiated. See Gnosticism,
Esoteric Order of Dagon, Soror Azenath 23rd, Abita Springs, LA: Channel
the energy of the Nu Aeon, collective magical unconsciousness,
worship the Old Ones or Old Gods.
ESP: Acronym for Extrasensory Perception.
ESPress, Inc., Washington, D.C.: Psychics. See
National Spiritual Science Center.
Essene Gospel of Peace, Edmond Bordeaux Szekely: New
Age, allegedly channeled by Jesus, enlightenment,
illness is a mistake.
Essene Light Center, Mary L. Myers, Charlotte, NC: Has similarities
to I AM movement, belief in Great White
Brotherhood, ascended beings, Father-Mother god.
est, Warner Erhard: Personal transformation seminar
promising individual growth, business management skills, stress reduction, etc.
Teaches the world has no objective meaning, enlightenment, and to live moment
to moment with no regard for the future. New Age themes. In the midst of mounting
troubles, Erhard decided to leave the United States. Est was discontinued and
replaced by The Forum. Similar to other transformational/encounter seminars
such as Lifespring.
Eupsychia, Austin, TX: New Age, Transcendental
Meditation, Native American spirituality, shamanism.
Evangelical Christianity: Evangelical (from
the Greek euangelion, good news or gospel) generally
means a focus on the essentials of Christianity.
The term can be used to describe all Christians or churches that hold to or
give heavy emphasis to specific conservative Protestant
beliefs. (In Germany, Evangelical is basically synonymous with Lutheran.)
These include: the authority and infallibility of the Bible, the nature of God
(sovereign, holy, compassionate, personal, etc.), the sinful and fallen state
of humanity, and salvation by grace through faith in
the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ as the only
means of salvation. More specifically the term has come to be closely identified
with a widespread trans-denominational shift towards more conservative Christian
doctrine that developed after World War II. See Fundamental
Evolutionary Kingdom Level Above Human, Richardson, Texas: Earlier name
of Heavens Gate, Marshall Applewhite's
Exaltation: In the teaching of The Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints, the highest form of salvation. It means to become
a God, exactly like God the Father and Jesus Christ, and to produce and rule
over ones offspring throughout eternity.
Exit Counseling: (Thought Reform Consulting)
A non-coercive technique (in contrast to deprogramming)
designed to help rescue members of religions or cults that are considered false,
harmful, or dangerous. The program usually involves a two to three day
voluntary counseling session emphasizing education and dialogue, often with
a licensed mental health professional, a former member of the group, and/or
a specialist on cult dynamics. The approach stresses true
personal and religious freedom in the context of providing additional information
and full disclosure, which facilitates more informed decision-making. Family
counseling and intervention techniques may also be incorporated.
Extrasensory Perception (ESP): Alleged knowledge of
an experience or a response to an external event apart from the five senses.
This experience can take place either in a wakeful or dream state.
Faith Assembly Church, Raymond Jackson, Jeffersonville, IN: Similar to
William Branham. Publishes The Contender newspaper.
Faithbuilders Fellowship, San Diego, CA: Theology similar to Jehovahs
Faithful Word, Chicago, IL: Armstrongism
splinter group, teaches necessity of keeping the Law of Moses. Publishes The
Faith Word magazine.
Faith Temple, Rosemary Cosby, Salt Lake City, UT: Apostolic
Faith splinter group; Cosby has claimed to be the Messiah.
False Prophecy: Generally, any teaching by a prophet
that is not true. Specifically, it is a prediction, made by an individual or
group claiming to speak on Gods authority, of a specific event that fails
to occur by the specific, given date or within the specified time frame (Deuteronomy
Familiar Spirit: A spirit that can allegedly
communicate with humans, often through possessing the body of a medium,
channeler, or psychic. Also,
a special type of demon that can impersonate a deceased
person during attempts to communicate with the dead (see necromancy).
Family, The, Charles Manson: The followers of Charles Manson, some
of whom were convicted for the 1969 Tate/LaBianca murders. Not related to the
Family, The, David Berg: Originally called the
Children of God (COG) and recently called The Family of Love, this
group boasts communal colonies throughout the world. Best known
for explicit sexual practices in recruiting converts and inner-group life, based
on Bergs writings, the MO Letters. Not related to previous entry.
Fantasy Role Playing Games (FRP): Players assume
the identity of mythical characters and participate in elaborate mental adventures.
Critics have expressed concern over the tremendous amount of time often invested
in the games. More disturbing are reports that the games often emphasize rape,
violence, spells, magic and other occult
themes. Some parents have also charged that their children committed suicide
while under the influence of FRP.
The Farm, Stephen Gaskin, Summertown, TN: Zen Buddhism
mixed with esoteric Christianity, pantheism,
Farrakhan, Louis: Leader in the Nation of Islam.
Fate, Marion, OH: New Age/occult
Father Divine, né George Baker
(18781965): Black founder of the Peace Mission Movement,
believed by his followers to be God.
The Fellowship, Chicago, IL: One of a number of groups that follow the
teachings of The URANTIA Book. New
Age, automatic writing, ascended
Fellowship For Spiritual Understanding, Marcus Bach, Palos Verdes Estates,
CA: Similar teaching to Unity School of Christianity, denies
reality of death, teaches man is God.
Fellowship of Isis: Paganism. Egyptian gods
and goddess worship.
Fellowship of the Inner Light, Paul Solomon, Virginia Beach, VA: New
Age; concept of Meta-Human teaches man to go beyond human to
Fellowship of Universal Guidance, Glendale, CA: Astrology,
Fellowship Press, Noblesville, IN: Soulcraft library, claims of channeled
information from William Dudley Pelley in the very High Planes of Consciousness
after he had died.
Feminism: See Radical Feminism.
Feraferia, Eagle Rock, CA: Paganism, magic,
spells, astrology, goddess
Fifth Epocal Fellowship, Chicago, IL: One
of a number of groups that follow the teachings of The
URANTIA Book. Formerly URANTIA Brotherhood. New Age,
automatic writing, ascended beings.
Firewalking Institute of Research and Education, Twain Harte, CA: Firewalking,
shamanism, meditation, sweat
First Demonic Church, Efrem Del Gatto, Italy: Satanism.
First Presleyterian Church of Elvis the Divine,
Bethelehem, PA: Begun in 1988 as a marketing ploy/parody by Farndu and Karl
Edwards, the church spoofs traditional religions and cults by worshipping
Elvis Presley in weekly services held on the Internet and the campus chapel
of Lehigh University in Bethlehem, PA.
First Temple of the Craft of W.I.C.A., South Chicago Heights, IL: Paganism,
witchcraft (see Wicca).
First Universal Church of God-Realization,
Bhagavan Sri Babajhan-Al-Kahlil, Redondo Beach, CA: New Age,
God is the self within, many paths all lead to the One Destination.
First World Conclave of Light, San Diego, CA: UFOs,
32 planets already joined but are waiting for the Earth to make the necessary
commitment before the spaceships can land. See also Unarius
First Zen Institute of America, New York, NY: Zen Buddhism,
astrology. Publishes the Zen Notes newsletter.
Fitch, Joseph: See Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship.
Flag Service Organization, Tampa, FL: Promotes Church
of Scientology philosophy.
Flirty Fishing, (Ffing): Allegedly discontinued practice of using sex
to entice converts into The Family.
Flying Saucer Information Center, Pasadena, MD: UFOs,
aliens coming to take Earth children for seedlings. Publishes the Update
Followers of Christ Church, Walter
T. White, Oregon City, OR: Practices shunning,
exhibits legalism, and holds to a strict faith-healing
doctrine. Doctors and hospitals are not allowed. State medical examiner claims
as many as 25 children have died in the last two decades from complications
from otherwise common medical problems.
Ford, Arthur: See Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship.
Form Criticism: A method of literary
criticism used by many scholars in the interpretation of the Bible. It identifies
the literary forms of specific parts of the biblical writings, such as the different
types of psalms (thanksgiving, lament, etc.) or the different units in the Gospels
(parables, miracle stories, etc.). By noting common features in passages of
the same form, various conclusions are drawn about how to interpret those passages.
In liberal Christianity, which pioneered this method,
many of the forms are assumed to be legendary or mythical (especially those
involving the supernatural). Some evangelical scholars think form criticism
can be useful if such liberal assumptions are avoided, while other evangelicals
reject form criticism outright. See also Redaction criticism.
Fort Worth Bible Students, Fort Worth, TX: Bible
Students group that republishes older Watchtower Bible
and Tract Society materials.
Fortunetelling: A form of divination in which
a person attempts to predict the future using alleged paranormal powers.
The Forum: New Age, personal transformation seminar;
Foundation Church, New York, NY: Psychic development,
psychosomastery, UFOs. See also Process
Church of the Final Judgement.
Foundation Church of Divine Truth, Washington,
D.C.: New Age/occult, based on automatic
writings of James E. Padget as found in the book True Gospel Revealed
Anew by Jesus; teaches that man becomes the very essence of God. Publishes
the Divine Truth Commentary newsletter.
Foundation Church of the Millennium: See Process
Church of the Final Judgement.
Foundation Church of the New Birth: See Foundation
Church of Divine Truth.
Foundation Faith, (Foundation Faith of God): See Process
Church of the Final Judgement.
Foundation Faith of the Millennium, New York: Universalism.
All religious leaders, including Jesus, Mohammad and Buddha were sent by God.
Foundation for Co-Creation, Barbara Marx Hubbard, Greenbraie, CA: Prominent
New Age lecturer and writer.
Foundation for Higher Spiritual Learning, Centreville, VA: Formerly
Bridge to Freedom, the new name was adopted in 1979. The group follows
the theosophical teachings of Guy Ballard of the I
AM movement, including the Great White Brotherhood.
Foundation for Inner Peace: Organization and publisher for A
Course in Miracles.
Foundation for Life Action, Tara Singh, Los Angeles, CA: Know ones
own Christ nature; promotes A Course
in Miracles. Publishes A Call To Wisdom newsletter.
Foundation for Shamanic Studies, Michael Harner, Norwalk, CT: Occult,
shamanism for empowerment and healing.
Foundation for Unlimited Consciousness, Rain Morgan, Orcas, WA: New
Age, channeling, Ramtha devotees (see Knight,
Foundation of Human Understanding, Roy Masters,
Grants Pass, OR: Eastern mysticism, Gnosticism,
hypnotism, yoga, meditation.
Foundation of Light and Metaphysical Education, Hurst, TX: Occult,
astrology, psychic readings.
Foundation of Revelation, San Francisco, CA: Eastern mysticism,
Fox, Kate and Margarett: See Spiritualism.
Fox, Matthew: Dominican Catholic
priest silenced by the Vatican for teaching blatant New Age
theology (which he calls creation-centered spirituality).
Fraternity of Light, Philadelphia, PA: Kabbalah,
reincarnation, karma; ones
inner essence is a Divine Spark.
Free Bible Students: A small Bible Students
splinter group currently consisting of only four congregations and approximately
27 home groups.
Free Soul, Sedona, AZ: New Age, spirit guides,
commune with Divine Nature, Psychic and Higher Soul Dimensions.
Free Spirit, Brooklyn, NY: New Age periodical.
Freemasonry: A fraternal order revived in
the early 18th century in England, loosely based on associations or guilds of
stone cutters (operative masons). Freemasonry (speculative
masons) sought to give philosophical, moral, or spiritual meaning to the lodge,
tools, and oaths of the stone cutters. Branches of Freemasonry include the Blue
Lodge, York Rite, Scottish Rite, and Shriners. Affiliated organizations include
the Order of the Eastern Star (for women), the Order of DeMolay (for boys),
and the Order of Rainbow (for girls). Most modern adherents maintain that the
organization is not a religion but a club or fraternity promoting high moral
values and good works. They believe, therefore, that Freemasonry is compatible
with and supplements Christianity and other religions. Critics counter that
Freemasonry involves secret blood oaths or curses, and that the writings of
respected early leaders (Albert Mackey, Albert Pike, etc.) are replete with
occult philosophy and religious doctrine contrary to Christianity. Despite Freemasonrys
promotion and funding of a number of worthwhile, philanthropic endeavors (free
Shriner children hospitals, nursing homes, etc.), many Christian individuals
and churches have condemned Freemasonry or warned of elements that they believe
are contrary to Christianity. These churches include the Presbyterian Church
of America, Southern Baptist Convention, Episcopal Church, Christian Reformed
Church, Church of the Nazarene, and Lutheran Church (Missouri and Wisconsin
Freewinds Relay Office, Clearwater, FL: Promotes Church
Friends Review, Hillsboro, OR: Occult/metaphysical
Fundamentalist Christianity: Generally a reference
to conservative Christians who believe five fundamentals of Christianity:
the inerrancy of Scripture, the virgin birth of Christ, the substitutionary
atonement of Christ, the bodily resurrection of Christ, and the historicity
of biblical miracles. More specifically, the term is identified with the conservative
reaction, especially in America, to liberal Christianity
in the early 20th century. Core beliefs of the movement are virtually identical
with evangelical Christianity. Some fundamentalists,
however, later distinguished themselves from evangelicals (or neo-evangelicals)
whom they saw as too compromising and ecumenical. More recently some have given
a new, negative meaning to the term fundamentalist using it as a
synonym for narrow-minded, bigoted, anti-intellectual or divisive Christians.
G.A.P. Ministries, Elm Grove, WI: Sabbatarianism,
observes Feast Days, part of Sacred Name movement.
Publishes The Appointed Time newsletter.
Gabriel Society, Ruth Harders, Western Springs, IL: New
Age, metaphysics, Universal Mind.
Gaia: Originally the Greek goddess
of earth. Many see the earth as one large living organism made of numerous parts,
much as the human body is one living organism with various parts.
Gandhi Memorial Center, Swami Premananda, Washington, D.C.: Eastern
mysticism, teaching of Hindu
leader Mahatma Gandhi. Publishes The Gandhi Message quarterly.
Garvey Center, Witchita, KS: New Age, holistic
health mixed with sound medical procedures. Pyramid powers.
Gatekeepers, Christopher James Turgeon,
Pala, CA: A small cult formerly called Ahabah Sasah
Prophetic Ministries in Everett, WA. Turgeon once claimed to be the prophet
Elijah. He and another member, Blaine Alan Applin, were charged with first-degree
murder in 1998 following the shooting death of former member Daniel Jess. Earlier
that year a SWAT team served a warrant on the group's five-acre compound located
60 miles north of San Diego and recovered weapons and other stolen property.
Gateway To Light, Lloyd G. Sellman, Dewey, AZ: UFOs,
Gateways Institute, Jonathan Parker, Ojai, CA: New
Age, subliminal tapes, karma,
Gawain, Shakti: New Age author who popularized
Buddhism through creative visualization
Geller, Uri: Psychic, psychokinesis,
ESP and parapsychology.
Germain, Saint: See I AM Movement, Ascended
Ghosts: Non-physical entities or spirit beings,
often believed to be the spirits of the dead. See Spiritualism,
Demon, Necromancy, Occult.
Global Church of God, Roderick Meredith, San
Diego, CA: Splinter group from Worldwide Church of God.
Teaches a form of Armstrongism.
Global Family, Palo Alto, CA: New Age, visualization,
Higher self which is God, pantheism (all is God).
Globalism: When used in a religious sense, this term most often
means to lose all national identity. Mankind must see itself as one world
family, without the need for distinctions between religions. All religions
become true or the distinctive doctrines of the various religions must
be disregarded in an attempt to achieve the new Global Family idea.
Global Times: The bimonthly magazine published by the Denmark
office for Proutist International. See PROUT.
Gnostic Catholic Church of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta: Paganism,
magic, Celtic rituals. Publishes the
Gnosticism: From the Greek word gnosis
(knowledge). Salvation comes through secret knowledge. A diverse belief influenced
by Greek philosophy and similar to forms of pantheism,
Gnosticism generally taught that matter was evil and spirit was good. Forms
of gnosticism affected early Christianity. One Gnostic heresy taught that because
matter was evil, Jesus could not have come in the flesh. Many New Agers regard
Gnostic Christianity as the more enlightened form of Christianity.
Gnostic Order of Christ, The, Timothy Harris,
San Jose, CA: An esoteric and mystical order reviving the doctrines of the now
defunct Holy Order of MANS.
Goats Head: An occult symbol consisting of
an upside-down five-pointed star. See Baphomet.
God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation: See Chen
Goddess: New Age, occult,
neo-paganism. A term used in various though related
senses to affirm a feminine nature or aspect of the divine. Three beliefs are
common: revering Mother Nature, or the Earth, as divine (see Gaia);
worshiping a female deity (often linked to primitive pagan religions, as in
Wicca); and the search by some women for the divine
spark of the goddess within. Profile
Gods House of Prayer for All People, Samuel T. Allen, Dallas,
TX: Sabbath and Old Testament festivals kept for salvation (see Sabbatarianism).
Gods Salvation Church: See Chen Tao.
Golden Association, Ann Rogers, San Jose, CA: New
Age, channeling, inner voices.
Golden Book of the Theosophical Society, The: See Rosicrucianism.
Golden Dawn, John Phillips Palmer, Lumberville, PA: Occult,
magic, spiritual authorities are Secret Chiefs and Inner
Golden Dolphin, Sheila Balenger, Greenback, WA: Paganism,
astrology, Mother Earth, Primal Goddess.
Publishes Sacred Cycles newsletter.
Golden Eagle Sanctuary, Hot Springs, AR: Yoga, crystalss,
pyramidology, aura balancing.
Golden Lion, Ann Alexander, Houston, TX: New Age,
Golden Quest, Hilda Charlton, Lake Hill, NY: UFOs,
space brothers, karma, meditation,
the divine child within all.
Golden Wheel, W.E. Reeve, England: Occult, astrology,
alchemy, UFOs, spiritualism.
Good Cheer Press, Boulder, CO: Publishes material promoting The
Good, Joseph: See Hatikva Ministries.
Gospel: Literally meaning good news,
the term gospel is used by traditional Christians as a reference to the message
of salvation by grace through faith, based on the death,
burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ
(1 Corinthians 15:14). The first four books of the New Testament, which
consist of accounts of Jesus ministry, death, and resurrection (Matthew,
Mark, Luke and John), are also called the Gospels. One of the marks of a cult
is that it preaches a different gospel, that is, a false way of salvation (2
Corinthians 11:4; Galatians 1:69). Most false gospels teach a form of
either salvation by works or universalism.
Grail Foundation of America, Abd-ru-shin, Binghamton, NY: Esoteric
teachings, Christs call for child-like faith
no longer valid.
Grand Canyon Society, Scottsdale, AZ: New Age,
channeling, members use The
URANTIA Book as their text.
Great Invocation: A New Age prayer written
in 1937 by Alice Bailey (see Arcane School) and circulated
by various New Age groups that believe widespread recitiation may help initiate
a new utopia on earth.
Great Lakes Fellowship: Splinter Group of The Way International.
Great Lakes Pagan Association, Techumseh, MI: Pagan,
Wicca. Publishes The Covenstead newsletter.
Great Lakes Society for Biblical Research,
John Cheetham: Armstrongism splinter group.
Great White Brotherhood: New Age
belief in a group of spirit beings or reincarnated
teachers, also called Ascended Masters, existing on
a non-physical higher plane.
Greater Grace World Outreach, Carl H. Stevens,
Jr., Baltimore, MD: Formerly The Bible Speaks. Courts required church
to return funds to millionaire contributor for unethical and illegal actions.
Allegedly practices mind control and shepherding.
Group for Creative Meditation: See Meditation Group
for New Age.
Grove of the Unicorn, Galadriel, Atlanta, GA: Paganism,
Wicca, moon festivals, magic.
Guardian Action International, Deming, NM: UFOs,
Guided Imagery: Another term for Visualization.
Guideposts: Magazine founded by Norman Vincent
Guild For Hermetic Revelation, Houston, TX: New Age,
astrology, soothsaying, reflexology,
Gunvik, Sigurd: This mans teachings are a mixture of Jehovahs
Witnesses and Sacred Name theology.
Gurdjieff, George I.: Mixture of occult, psychic
and mystical teaching. Considered by some to have been the greatest mystical
teacher of all times.
Guru: Eastern/Hindu religious
teacher (sometimes thought to be a focus of worship or adoration) who gives
personal guidance towards enlightenment.
Guru Dev: Hindu Swami (religious master) who was the teacher of Maharishi
Mahesh Yogi, founder of Transcendental Meditation.
H2B Company San Francisco, CA: New Age, yoga,
Halloween: (Samhain) The term Halloween
originally referred to All Hallows Eve, a Catholic observance of the night
before All Saints Day. However, in its modern American form it is a holiday
based on pagan, occult, Celtic
beliefs and Druid rituals. Believed to be a religious high
or holy day by those involved in witchcraft (see Wicca)
and Satanism. Celebrated on October 31st, children are
encouraged to wear costumes and solicit candy door-to-door (Trick-or-Treat).
Halpern, Steve: Prominent New
Age music composer and lecturer.
Hare Krishna: Nickname for the International Society
for Krishna Consciousness.
Harmonic Convergence: A New
Age, social, environmental and personal transformational event formulated
by Jose Arguelles, based on alleged Mayan prophecies and astrological
conjecture. Arguelles promoted a gathering of New Age believers held 1617
August 1987 at the earths supposed vortexes (psychic
power centers) for meditation and chanting, theoretically
to usher in a cosmic transformation. Other significant dates were 31 December
1987 and a culmination in 2012.
Harmonie et Energie des volcans dAuvergne: See Spiritual
Harr, Brian, Rochester, NY: The reincarnation
Harris, Timothy: See Gnostic Order of
Hartley, Harriette, Arlington, TX: New Age, psychic,
Hatha Yoga: See Yoga.
Hatikva Ministries, Joseph Good, Port Arthur,
TX: Denies the doctrine of the Trinity and deity of Christ,
seems to be Sacred Name.
Hawkwind, Charla Hawkwind Hermann, Valley Head, AL: Native
American spirituality, Mother Earth, shamanism,
astrology. Publishes The Pathfinder magazine.
Hay, Louise: New Age, metaphysical
counselor and author.
Healing Arts Expressions, Solvang, CA: New Age;
healing by meditation on a piece of art, painting,
Healing Center, Sarasota, FL: New Age, magnetic
therapy, chakras, Yin and Yang balancing.
Health and Wealth Gospel: See Word-Faith Movement.
Health Conscious Services, Christ Singh Khalsa, New York: Yoga,
Kundalini, each person is his or her own Master.
Healthy, Happy, and Holy, Los Angeles, CA: A.k.a.
3H0, the educational arm of Sikhism. Practices Kundalini
Yoga, vegetarianism, and overcoming painful thoughts to
move toward enlightenment.
Heart Consciousness Church, Middletown, CA: New Age,
goddess worship, Native American spirituality,
sweat lodge, meditation. Publishes
the Harbin magazine.
Heart Dance, Mill Valley, CA: New Age, psychic,
Crystals. Publishes the Heart Dance magazine.
Heaven and Earth, Gloucester, MA: New Age, crystals.
Heaven's Gate, Marshall Applewhite and Bonnie
Lou Nettles, Rancho Santa Fe, CA: New Age, UFOs.
Applewhite (a.k.a. Do) and 38 other members committed suicide in March of 1997,
believing that by leaving their bodies behind they could join Nettles (a.k.a.
Ti) and other "older members" from "the next level above human" on a UFO supposedly
hidden behind the Hale-Bopp comet. Profile
Heavens Magic: Another name for the followers of David Berg, founder
of The Family (Children of God); produces multi-color
childrens posters and music.
Heresy: Literally, a theological dissension or
division arising from diversity of opinions and aims. The term is usually reserved
to refer to false teachings considered so serious that belief in them excludes
the followers from the true faith and salvation; in other words, a belief viewed
as fatal to the gospel. Religious groups founded on the
basis of heresy are known as cults.
Heretic: A person who causes a division by teaching heresy.
Heritage Institute, Plainfield, WI: New Age,
past life, Ouija board, telepathy, psychic
Hermit, Jan Moody, Topsham, MA: Astrology,
Tarot card reading, channeling.
High Point, Vance Harris, Willard MO: New Age,
High Wind Association, Milwaukee, WI: Native American
philosophy, Alchemy, Accelerated Human Consciousness.
Publishes Windwatch newspaper.
Hinkins, John-Roger: Founder of Church of the Movement
of Spiritual Inner Awareness.
Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy, Swami
Rama, Honesdale, PA: New Age, Hinduism, yoga,
meditation. Publishes Himalayan Institute Quarterly.
Hinduism: The major world religion that originated
from the ancient religions of India, which originally embraced polytheism.
As a more unified world religion, Hinduism teaches pantheism;
the ancient gods (especially the triad of Brahma, Vishnu,
and Shiva) are commonly interpreted as representations
of the various aspects of the divine (Brahman). Human beings progress to the
ultimate realization of their oneness with Brahman (often called Nirvana)
through reincarnation according to the law of karma.
Some of the concepts of Hinduism are incorporated, modified, and expanded upon
in the New Age Movement.
Hippocrates Health Institute, West Palm Beach, FL: New
Age, healing, yoga and meditation.
Hoffman, Teri, Dallas, TX: New
Age guru, believed to practice mind
control. Twelve followers or close associates have committed suicide or
died under unusual circumstances. Many left large sums of money to Hoffman.
Her organization is called Conscious Development of Body, Mind and Soul.
Hohm Community, Lee Lozowick, Tabor, NJ: No specific doctrine, all religions
have truth, seek Divine Evolution.
Holiness Tabernacle, Dyer, AR: See Alamo Christian
Holistic Health: (New Age Medicine/Alternative
Medicine) A view of health care focusing on the whole self (body,
mind and spirit) and natural or spiritual cures. Some holistic health remedies
and assumptions (i.e., a focus on wellness and prevention) are well within the
Christian worldview and are scientifically valid. Much within this movement,
however, is based on pantheistic concepts, New
Age visualization, and eastern religious beliefs
such as Chinese Taoism (Yin and Yang).
Most questionable are holistic practices that have no valid physiological explanation
or scientific proof such as applied kinesiology,
reflexology and iridology.
Holistic Life University, San Francisco, CA: New
Age, aura healing, reflexology,
Hollyhock, Rex Weyler, Blaine, WA: New Age retreat,
shamanism, drumming, meditation,
Holy Body of the Coming Jesus Christ Mission in New York: See Church
of the Living Stone Mission for the Coming Days.
Holy Grail Foundation, Leona Richards, Santa Cruz, CA: New
Age, Ascended Masters, reincarnation.
Holy Order of MANS, Earl W. Blighton:
Monastic New Age group that practiced esoteric,
mystical religion blending biblical themes with reincarnation
and other concepts from Eastern religions and the occult.
Blighton, an ex-engineer who was once fined for practicing medicine without
a license, began the order in 1968. "MANS" was an acronym for a phrase revealed
only to initiates. After advancing through the order, men reached the status
of Brown Brother of the Holy Light, while women might become an Immaculate Sister
of Mary for Missionary Training. After the death of Blighton, the group underwent
radical changes. The majority of followers converted to Eastern Orthodoxy
and the order eventually was transformed into Christ the Savior Brotherhood,
a sect of Eastern Orthodoxy. Several competing groups later formed claiming
to preserve Blighton's original purpose and message. They include the Gnostic
Order of Christ, Science of Man, and the American
Holy Shankaracharya Order, Stroudsburg, PA: Hindu
theology. Publishes Purarnave periodical.
Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World
Christianity: See Unification Church.
Holyland: See REACH, Inc.
Homeopathy: Pseudo-medical holistic
health techniques developed by Samuel Hahneman whereby minute doses of natural
elements are said to cure diseases.
Homewords, Susan Johansen, Salt Lake City, UT: Channeling,
out-of-body experiences. Publishes the Homeword newspaper.
Horoscope: See Astrology.
Horus/Maat Lodge: Occult, paganism,
ritual magic, Egyptian philosophy.
House of David, Benjamin Purnell Benton Harbor,
MI.: British Israelism; Purnell taught he was the seventh
and last messenger or angel of Revelation. Publishes Shilohs Messenger
House of Divine Bread, J.L. Mociulewski, Bayonne,
NJ: Pantheism, Father-Mother god.
House of Prayer for All People, William Blessing, Denver, CO: Sacred
Name, teachings on Atlantis and Lemuria.
House of Yahweh, Yisrayl (a.k.a. Buffalo
BiIll) Hawkins, Abilene, TX: Armstrongism
splinter group. Sabbatarianism, Sacred
Name, British Israelism, only true church. Profile
House of Yahweh: Odessa, TX: See Sacred Name
Houston, Jean: Prominent New Age spokesperson
and author of many books on education in the American school system. Profile
Hubbard, L. Ron: Late founder of the Church
Human Universal Energy (HUE): Alternative name for Spiritual
Hunger Project: Claims to help poverty-stricken people using visualization
to rid the world of hunger. See est.
Hyperborea, Mark Roberts, Dallas, TX: Paganism,
pantheism, Mother Earth is Divine.
Hypnosis: Technique inducing an altered
state of consciousness or trance by verbal or non-verbal
stimuli. Participants experience reduced ability for critical thinking and are
generally open to external suggestion. See Mesmerism.
I AM Movement, Guy and Edna Ballard: Occult,
New Age, pantheism, Great
White Brotherhood, the god within. Founded 1930; directs praise and adoration
on the 18th century French occultist, St. Germain. Publishes
Voice of the I AM magazine.
I Ching: (Yi King or The Book of Changes)
Ancient Chinese method of divination, predicting the
future using random casting of the stalks of the yarrow plant or three-lined
diagrams (Trigams) representing, among other things, Yin and
I DO, Twin Falls, ID: New Age, cosmic law, karma,
reincarnation, awaiting a New Savior.
Identity Movement: See Christian
Iglesia Ni Cristo, Felix Manalo: Rejects the Trinity;
teaches salvation by works, salvation found only in
Illuminati, (Enlightened Ones):
Secret society founded by a professor of canon law, Adam Weishaupt, in Bavaria,
Germany. Originally promoted free thought and democratic political theories.
Now believed by many to be an anti-democratic, elitist, conspiracy for one-world-government.
Imagery: Alternative term for Visualization.
Imagine, Nora Jennings, Springfield, MO: New Age,
reincarnation, yoga, Dream
Rap, uses A Course in Miracles as a text.
Impossible Possibilities, Marshall Lever, Annapolis, MD: New
Age, numerology, auras, reincarnation.
Infinity Institute International, Royal Oak, MI: New
Age, hypnosis, Ancient Mystery philosophy, Egyptian
revival. Publishes Subconsciously Speaking newsletter.
Inner Connection, Lewisville, TX: New Age
Inner Light, New Brunswick, NJ: UFOs, psychic
Inner Light Foundation, Betty Bethards, Novato, CA: Psychic,
meditation, inner spirit guides, Atlantis.
Inner Light Institute, Christina Thomas, Memphis, TN: New
Age, rebirthing, yoga, inner
child, firewalking, Neuro-Linguistic Programming.
Inner Peace Movement, Francisco Coll: New Age,
Inner Space Center: See Prosperos.
Inner Technologies, Richard Daab, Fairfax, CA: New
Age, yoga, astral projection,
meditation, reaching Samadhi (state of enlightenment),
channeling, crystals, visualization.
Inner Vision, Brooklyn, NY: Mystical knowledge, auras,
Inner Way, Bruce Derby, Homeland, CA: Spirit guides, mystical use of
Insight magazine, Washington, D.C.: Politically conservative,
owned by the Unification Church.
Insight Transformational Seminars: See Church of the
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness.
Institute for Advanced Perception, Harold S. Schroeppel, Oak Park, IL:
Tarot, astrology, chakras,
Institute for Bio-Spiritual Research, Coulterville, CA: New
Age, focusing, God-Consciousness.
Institute for Family and Human Relations, Los Gatos, CA: See Life
Training, same co-founder.
Institute for Human and Universal Energy Research, Inc. (IHUERI): See
Spiritual Human Yoga.
Institute for the Advancement of Human Behavior, Stanford, CA: Guided
Imagery (visualization) sessions.
Institute of Divine Metaphysical Research, Henry Clifford Kinley, Springfield,
OH: Mixture of Theosophy and Occult.
Taught the world would end in 1996.
Institute of Esoteric Study, Milwaukee, WI: Occult,
Lunar festivals, astrology, paganism.
Publishes the Lunar Letter.
Institute of Greater Awareness, Steve Mazzarella, Denver, CO: Voodoo,
Institute of Judaic-Christian Research, Vendyl
Jones, Arlington, TX: Bnai Noah, teaches Plural Covenant
doctrine, teaches from the Kabbalah, and denies the
Deity of Jesus. See Dual Covenant.
Institute of Mental Science, Nashville, TN: Mental Science, psychic
Institute of Mentalphysics, Edwin Dingle, Los Angeles, CA: New
Age, Eightfold path of Enlightenment, self-realization (a concept borrowed
from Buddhism), self-realization, Supreme Mind.
Institute of Noetic Sciences, Edgar Mitchell, Sausalito, CA: From Greek
word nous, meaning mind. Healing through mind power, New
Age holistic health. Founded in 1973 with 55,000
members worldwide. Current president Willis Harman. Publishes: Noetic Sciences
Review and Noetic Sciences Bulletin and ReSource.
Institute of Sorcery, Hillsdale, IL: Occult, witchcraft
(see Wicca), Ouija board, Tarot
Institute of Spiritual Unfoldment: See Light
of the Holy Spirit.
International Assembly of Wizards, Brooklyn, NY: Occult,
karma-based cycles, cosmic vibrations, astrology.
International Association of Scientologists, England: Promotes Church
of Scientology philosophy.
International Churches of Christ, Kip McKean, Los
Angeles, CA: Formerly called the Boston Church of Christ movement, this worldwide
splinter from the traditional Churches of Christ originally
developed out of the controversial "Crossroads" Church of Christ campus ministry
in Gainesville, FL. Former members and critics allege mind
control. Practices shepherding, teaches baptismal
regeneration, and claims to be the only true church. Publishes Upside
Down magazine. Aggressively recruits on college and university campuses
throughout America and internationally. Profile
International Community of Christ: See Jamilian
University of the Ordained.
International Congregation of Yahweh, Pocahontas, AR: Armstrongism
splinter group. Sabbatarianism. Publishes Insight.
International Fundamental of Astrological Sciences, New York, NY: Occult,
International General Assembly of Spiritualists,
Fred Jordan, Norfolk, VA: Spiritualism, clairaudience
International Mahayana Yoga Association, Bo-In Lee, Jamaica Plain, MA:
International Meditation Society: See Transcendental Meditation.
International Metaphysical Association, New York, NY: Similar to Christian
Science theology; uses Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures
International Religious and Magickal Order of Societe, La Couleuvre
Noire: See Technicians of the Sacred.
International Society of Divine Love, H.D. Prakashanand Saraswati, Austin,
TX: Eastern mysticism, Divine Love consciousness.
International Society for Krishna Consciousness,
A.C. Bhaktivendanta Swami Prabhupada: (ISKCON) Sect of Hinduism,
uses mantras, worships Lord Krishna and uses Bhagavad-Gita
as scripture. Publishes Back to Godhead magazine. Profile
International Space Science Foundation, Rick Ardyn, Salt Lake City,
UT: UFOs, claims to possess recordings of space people.
Into the Light, Tahlequah, OK: New Age, metaphysics,
Intuitive Explorations, Quincy, IL: New Age,
karma, astral projection, auras,
Investigative Judgment: One of
the unique doctrines of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
that make the place of that church within evangelical
Christianity questionable. First taught in Adventism
by Hiram Edson, F.B. Hahn, and O.R.L. Crosier, it was accepted as present
truth by those who would later become known as Seventh-day
Adventists (SDAs) after it was confirmed and taught in visions received
by Ellen G. White. The doctrine teaches that in the Holy of Holies in the Heavenly
Sanctuary Christ is now conducting an investigation into the lives of all who
have ever professed belief in Christ. He is judging all their works, by the
standard of Gods Law. All those whose lives fail to measure up to the
standard of the Law are rejected and condemned as not having true faith. Those
whose lives meet that standard and thus manifest the perfect character and righteousness
of Christ are recognized as having true faith, and so their sins are blotted
out. SDAs say, This judgment vindicates the justice of God in saving
those who believe in Jesus. It declares that those who have remained loyal to
God shall receive the kingdom. Evangelicals believe, and the Bible teaches
(Rom. 3:2126), that Gods justice in saving sinners who trust Jesus
to save them is vindicated by the blood of JesusHis death in their place,
in their behalf. Profile (on SDA) available.
Invisible Fellowship Boulder, CO: New Age, promotes
the teachings of The URANTIA Book.
Inward Bound, Alexander Everett, Arlington, TX: New
Age, Centering, tapping into the Universal Consciousness.
Iridology: Developed by Ignatz Peczeky, a Holistic
Health technique which supposedly allows one to diagnose unrelated diseases
(such as a sprained ankle or weak back) by reading the color patterns of the
eyes irises. Some practitioners also claim ability to diagnose emotional
or mental problems.
Isis New Age Center, Denver, CO: Yoga, ritual magic,
Isis Unveiled: See Rosicrucianism.
ISKCON: Acronym for International Society for Krishna
Islam, Muhammad: Based on the teachings and life
of Muhammad (570-632 AD) in Mecca and Medina, Saudi Arabia (then Persia). Islam
is the second largest world religion, and has recently become the third largest
religious body in America with over 6 million adherents. Muslim-based sects
such as the Nation of Islam (which appeals especially
to African-Americans) and Baháí (which
proclaims the unity of the human race) have special appeal to many Americans.
Islam is composed of two major divisions the mainstream Sunni (the largest)
and the more radical Shiites. The mystical tradition of Sufism
includes many Sunnis and some Shiites. The Arabic word Islam means
submission to the will of God and a person who submits is called
a Muslim. The Quran (or, Koran), the Torah, the Psalms of the Old Testament,
and the Gospel of the New Testament are regarded as holy books. However, only
the Quran is considered uncorrupted. Islam rejects the Trinity
doctrine, the deity of Christ and His Sonship, claiming
that Jesus was only a great prophet. Muhammad is considered
to be the greatest prophet, whose coming was allegedly predicted by Christ.
Islam adheres fiercely to monotheism. In addition to good works, salvation is
sought though observance of the Five Pillars: reciting there is no God
but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger, praying five times per day, fasting,
giving alms (donations to the poor), and a pilgrimage to Mecca. Historically,
Islam experienced tremendous growth often by forced proselytism unbelievers
(infidels) were offered conversion or death. While many Muslims exhibit tolerance
towards other faiths, even today Islamic fundamentalism promotes jihad
(holy war), against those of other religious and political views.
Isthmus Institute, Dallas, TX: New Age, reincarnation,
Jainism, Mahavira: A world religion begun as a reform
movement of Hinduism. Mahavira (b. 599 BC ) denied the
existence or worship of a supreme deity and taught enlightenment through strict
self-denial and non-violence. Later followers deified Mahavira himself, calling
him the 24th Tirthankara (last great savior teacher) who descended from heaven
without sin and with all knowledge.
Jamilian University of the Ordained, Gene Savoy,
Reno, NV: Esoteric teachings; Jamil (Gene Savoys
son) was second coming of Christ; Jesus was a mystic.
Jehovahs Witnesses: Official name of the religion
that accepts the authority of the Watchtower Bible and
Jesus: The founder and central figure of Christianity.
Jesus of Nazareth lived in Palestine from about 5/4 BC until AD 33 (or possibly
AD 30). The name Jesus corresponds with the Hebrew Joshua
and means Jehovah is salvation. Christianity
was founded on the belief that Jesus is the Messiah, or Christ,
promised in the Old Testament, and that he died to save human beings from the
penalty of sin. Even ancient, non-Christian sources corroborate some historical
facts about His life and ministry. By far, the oldest and fullest historical
information is found in the New Testament Gospels. Attempts
have been made by liberal Christianity, New
Agers, cults, and other religions to present Jesus as
a great teacher whose ministry or life was radically different from
the biblical historical accounts. While these efforts often define a Jesus
compatible with their world views, they lack early supporting historical documentation
and are thus arbitrary and subjective. The sources support the historic, traditional
Christian belief that Jesus is the second Person of the Trinity,
that he was and is fully God and fully man, that he was born of a virgin, died
on the cross as a substitutionary atonement for our sins, and rose bodily from
Jesus Only: Nickname for Oneness Pentecostalism.
Jihad: Literally, struggle, more popularly, holy war;
a term used to refer to the Muslim commitment to impose the teachings and law
of Islam throughout the world, by force where that is considered
necessary or appropriate.
Joan Teresa Power Products, Mars Hill, NC: Occult,
magic, astrology, voodoo,
witchcraft (see Wicca). Publishes an annual catalog.
Johannine Daist Communion, Da Free John. a.k.a. Franklin
Jones: Promotes violence against women in his book Garbage And The Goddess.
It is said that he makes love slaves of women.
John-David Learning Institute, Carlsbad, CA:
New Age, Brain-Mind expansion, Brain relations development.
Jones, Jim: Founder of the Peoples Temple
Jones, Vendyl: Founder of the Institute of Judaic-Christian
Jouret, Luc: Leader of the Order of the Solar Temple.
Joy Lake Mountain Seminar Center, Reno, NV: New Age,
Joy of Living, Roosevelt, NJ: New Age, spirit
within is Divine, yoga, hypnosis.
Judaism: World religion that traces its origins
to Gods call to Abram (Abraham) to be the father of a great people who
would inherit the land of Canaan and be the means of blessing to all mankind
(Genesis 12). That people is identified as the children of Abrahams grandson
Jacob, who was renamed Israel. The foundation of Judaism is the Torah (Genesis
through Deuteronomy), which tells of the Israelites bondage in Egypt,
their miraculous deliverance in the Exodus, and the giving of the Law through
Moses. The Israelites returned to the promised land of Canaan and became a small
but powerful nation there under the rule of King David and his son Solomon.
After Solomons death the kingdom split into a northern kingdom called
Israel and a southern kingdom called Judah (the name of Davids tribe).
The northern kingdom was conquered and decimated by the Assyrians in 722 BC,
after which the term Judeans, or Jews, gradually came into use to refer to all
Israelites. The Jews suffered conquests by a succession of foreign powers
the Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and finally the Romans in the first century
BC. Throughout this period the Jews developed a strong sense of national identity,
identification with the Promised Land, and anticipation of a coming Messiah
or Christ (Anointed One). These themes dominate
the rest of the Jewish Bible, which is identical with the Protestant canon of
the Old Testament. In the first century AD, Christianity
originated with the belief that Jesus was that promised
Messiah. The Jewish establishment at that time, however, rejected Jesus
claim to be the Messiah, and in fulfillment of his prophecy (Mark 13) the Jerusalem
temple was destroyed and the Jewish nation scattered (AD 70). What is now known
as the religion of Judaism originated after AD 70 as the rabbis, or teachers
of the Torah, developed a system of laws and interpretations of the Torah that
were eventually codified in the Talmud. Today Judaism can be identified as a
cultural, ethnic, or religious concept. There are three main branches of modern
Judaism: Orthodox (traditional, literal adherence to the Torah as interpreted
by the Talmud), Conservative (a middle position advocating traditional beliefs
and practices up to a point), and Reform (liberal, non-literal stance on the
Torah and Talmud; often non-religious or secular with emphasis on Jewish culture).
Kabat-Sinn, Jon: New Age leader introducing Zen
Buddhism into hospitals for stress reduction.
Kabbalah: (Various spellings) Mystical Jewish
teachings intermingled with teachings of gnosticism,
Neoplatonism, magic and the occult.
The word Kabbalah means secret oral tradition and was coined by an eleventh
century Spanish philosopher, Ibn Gabirol. The philosophy developed in Babylon
during the middle ages from earlier Hebrew speculation and numerology.
An early Kabbalist, Moses de Leon, developed and systematized the philosophy
in his thirteenth century work, The Book of Zolar (sometimes spelled
Zohar meaning Splendor).
Kairos Foundation: See Life Training.
Karma: The Hindu principle
of cause and effect. Representing neither good nor evil, all actions and events
are balanced with corresponding actions and events in the past or future (including
past and future lives through reincarnation).
Karma Yoga: See Karma, Yoga.
Katherine, Brooklyn, NY: Astrology, psychic
Keen, Sam: Prominent New Age teacher and author.
Featured in a series on PBS with Bill Moyers.
Kemp, Daniel, Patchogue, NY: Numerology, Kabbalah,
promotes Aleister Crowleys teachings.
Kerista Consciousness Church, San Francisco, CA: New
Age, Divine Cosmos, the hippie goddess
Kerista. Publishes Utopian Eyes magazine.
Keyes College, Ken and Penny Keyes, Eugene, OR: Yoga,
higher self, promotes John Bradshaws philosophy,
Keys To Understanding: See Messianic Assemblies
Kingdom Voice Publications, Joseph Jeffers, St. James, MO: UFOs,
pyramidology, Sacred Name
Kirpal Light Satsang, Sant Thakar Singh, Kinderhook,
NY: Pantheism, eastern mysticism,
Klassen, Frank, Ft. David, TX: Sacred Name;
publishes The Overcomer newsletter.
Knight, J.Z.: New Age, channeler
of spirit entity called Ramtha, an alleged Ascended
Koresh, David: See Branch Davidians.
Kosmon: See Universal Faithists of Kosmon.
Krastman, Hank: See Metaphysical Union.
Krieger, Dolores: See Therapeutic Touch.
Kripalu Yoga Retreat, Amrit Desai, Summit Station, PA: New
Age/Hindu philosophy, yoga,
self-realization is god realization. Publishes Yoga Quest magazine.
Krishna: According to some Hindu
sects, Krishna is the eighth or ninth incarnation of Vishnu and possibly the
manifestation of the supreme demigod/God incarnating as Vishnu. Devotion to
Krishna has been introduced in the West especially through the International
Society for Krishna Consciousness.
Krishnamurti Foundation of America Ojai,
CA: Hindu theology. Krishnamurti, a Hindu who sought
to unify Eastern religion with Western philosophy and science, was proclaimed
as the worlds messiah by Theosophy leader Annie
Besant in 1906. He later renounced that role to be the head of the newly created
Order of the Star. Teaches alternative mystical experiences.
Kundalini: Eastern metaphysical
term for the serpent force or Chi (spiritual/psychic
energy or life force) that is supposedly within humans. Also, the form of yoga
that seeks to focus that force.
Kunz, Dora: See Therapeutic Touch.
L. Ron Hubbard Gallery, Hollywood, CA: Promotes Scientology
Laksmi: (or Lakshma) The name of one of Krishnas
consorts. Also, a Hare Krishna term for money in the International
Society for Krishna Consciousness.
Laodicean Home Missionary, John Krewson Ft. Myers, FL: Bible
Lao-tzu: See Taoism.
Latter-day Church of Christ, Merlin Kingston, Salt Lake City, UT: Polygamous,
Mormon Fundamentalist splinter group led by Merlin and
Ortell Paul Kingston. Membership estimates range between 300 and 1,500 members.
The group is believed to own or control more than 24 companies and have holdings
in Nevada, Idaho, and possibly Arizona and Mexico.
Laughing Dove, Albuquerque, NM: Produces consciousness raising
products for Body, Mind and Spirit.
La Vey, Anton Szandor: Authored the Satanic
Bible, founded the Church of Satan.
Laymens Home Missionary Movement, Raymond Jolly,
Chester Springs, PA: Bible Students group; publishes
The Bible Standard and Herald of Christs Kingdom newsletter.
Lazaris: Spirit supposedly channeled by Jach Pursel.
LDS: Acronym for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Lectorium Rosicrucianism, Bakersfield, CA: Splinter group of Rosicrucianism.
Lee, Bo-In: See New Life HealthCenter.
Legalism: The belief that spirituality or salvation
is dependent upon strict observance of laws and/or rituals, implying salvation
by works. Or, a system of religious rules must be kept to please God or
religious leaders, sometimes resulting in a kind of spiritual
Lemurian Fellowship, Ramona, CA: Esoteric Christianity,
The Great Being called Christ which was over 76,000 years
Lenz, Frederick: Guru who renamed himself Zen
Les 18 lumieres de lEU (LEU18): See Spiritual Human
Liberal Christianity: A movement that seeks
to retain religious and spiritual values of Christianity
while discounting the infallible authority of the Bible. Its origins are in
the German Enlightenment, notably in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant and the
religious views of Friedrich Schleiermacher. Liberals reject the stated authorship
and historical accuracy of many books of the Bible. They are skeptical concerning
many or all of the biblical miracles, preferring naturalistic explanations or
viewing miracle accounts as legend or myth. They often deny or reinterpret in
mythical terms such doctrines of orthodox Christianity
as the virgin birth, atoning death, and even the resurrection of Jesus.
Liberalism has been most influential in mainline Protestant denominations and
is rejected in Evangelical and Fundamentalist
Liberation Theology: A movement that attempts
to unite theology with social and religious concerns about oppression. It finds
expressions among blacks, feminists, Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans,
but it is most closely identified with the shift toward Marxism among Roman
Catholic theologians and priests in Latin America. Most traditional doctrines
of Christianity are de-emphasized or reinterpreted.
Jesus and the Bible are defined and interpreted in light of a class struggle,
with the gospel seen as a radical call to activism (or
even revolution) promoting political and social answers usually in the form
of classic Communism.
Life Enhancement Systems, Houston, TX: Yoga, meditation.
Life Training, Dallas, TX: New
Age seminars that seek to awaken people to a new level of awareness and
belief systems; Eastern spiritual philosophy.
Life Understanding Foundation, Santa Barbara, CA: New
Age, pyramid power, dowsing,
yoga, UFOs and crystals.
Lifespring: New Age seminars promoting human
transformation and altering belief systems. Similar to est.
Lifton, Robert: Dr. Lifton studied Mao Tse-Tung's
programs of "Thought Reform" or Chinese brainwashing
while doing research for military intelligence. His study focused on radical
change in personality and belief systems of certain prisoners-of-war who were
held and tortured in Chinese camps. This research was later expanded in his
1961 work, Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism, in which he theorized
that subtle elements of these brainwashing techniques could also be found in
other environments. He outlined eight criteria for "thought reform," which he
called: Milieu Control, Mystical
Manipulation, Loading the Language, Doctrine
over Person, Sacred Science, Cult
of Confession, Demand for Purity, and Dispensing
of Existence. While some elements of these criteria could be found in virtually
any group, Lifton warned that an environment of mind
control or thought reform exists when all eight are found implemented in
Light Canal, Winchester, OH: Tarot cards, astrology,
runes, aura, moon magic,
Light Connections, Cardiff, CA: New Age/eastern
Light of the City Ministry, Renton, WA: Magic power
of words, Christ-consciousness. Publishes the Let
There Be Light magazine.
Light of the Holy Spirit, Harry Lee Holmberg,
Bativia, IL: Astrology, auras,
some similarities to the I AM movement.
Light of the Universe, Maryona Tiffin, OH: New Age,
Transcendental Meditation, UFOs. Publishes
The Lotus quarterly.
Light of Truth Church, Fra Zarathustra, Pasadena,
CA: Occult, magic, paganism,
Kabbalah. Publishes The White Light newsletter.
Light of Truth Church of Divine Healing: See International
General Assembly of Spiritualists.
Light of Yoga Society, Cleveland Heights, OH: Yoga.
Publishes Yoga In America magazine.
Light Speed, Zavi and Zava, Sedona, AZ: New Age,
UFOs, channeling. Publishes the
Light Speed magazine.
Lighted Way, Santa Monica, CA: Pyramidology,
Divine Mother, alchemy.
Lightworker, Azel, TX: New Age, Christ-consciousness,
astrology, psychic. Publishes
the Lightworker newspaper.
Lion and Lamb Ministries, Monte W. Judah, Norman, OK: Messianic
Jewish ministry. Holds that Jesus is the biblical Messiah.
Legalistic tendencies, Sabbatarianism,
practices Jewish holy days. Judah falsely predicted that the Abomination of
Desolation prophesied in the Bible would occur by March
of 1997 promising he would be "totally discredited" and would "shut down" the
ministry if wrong. On March 23, 1997 he apologized for the false
prophecy but reneged on his vow to disband the movement. [Note: this group
should not be confused with the Texas-based Lamb & Lion Ministries, a reputable
Christian organization led by David R. Reagan.]
Literary Criticism: The discipline that seeks
to discover the underlying literary sources, stylistic features, type or genre
of literature, authorship, unity, and date of a text, for their value in interpreting
the texts meaning in its original historical context. The application of literary
criticism to the Bible can be constructive, although in liberal
Christianity the method is typically applied on the basis of antisupernatural
and humanistic assumptions. See further Form Criticism.
Little Flock: (Anointed Class) In the teaching
of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, this phrase
(Luke 12:32) refers to the 144,000 Jehovahs Witnesses who will be allowed
to go to heaven. All other worthy Jehovahs Witnesses (the other
sheep cf. John 10:16) will live for eternity on a new paradise earth.
Lively Stones Fellowship, Palatka, FL: New Age,
reflexology, yoga, Body/Mind
Living Stream Ministry: Publishing firm for The
Living Waters, Lois Roden, Waco, TX: Sacred name;
taught that the Trinity is Father, Mother (Holy Spirit)
and Son. Published Shekinah newsletter. Now defunct. See Branch
L/L Research, Louisville, KY: New Age, channeling,
UFOs, attain Higher God-self.
Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd., St. Paul, MN: See
Spell. Influential publisher of occult, New
Age, and Wiccan materials begun in 1901 as the Portland
School of Astrology. The current president is Carl Weschcke who in 1988 acquired
the magazine Fate, which now has 140,000 subscribers. Their popular catalog,
New Worlds, is sold in newsstands nationwide and has a circulation of nearly
Loading the Language: One of eight criteria
of Mind Control according to Robert
Lifton's theory of Thought Reform. Limiting or controlling the thought processes
by regulating the language in such a way that communication constricts and limits
rather than expands human understanding. This may include the use of thought-stopping
clichés or artificially reducing complex issues to a false black/white
Local Church, The, Watchman Nee, Anaheim,
CA: Controversial movement begun in China in the early 1920s by Ni To-sheng
(Watchman Nee). Growth and controversy developed during the administration of
their second leader, the late Witness Lee, who moved to America in 1962 founding
Living Stream Ministry. Among issues drawing criticism from evangelical
Christians is the Local Church's use of the term mingling to
describe the relationship between God and believers (i.e., Christians become
both divine and human like Jesus). Some evangelicals have
also charged that the church compromises the Trinity
doctrine by confusing the Persons of the Holy Spirit and the Son in a way similar
to modalism. The organization's exclusivity has also
comme under fire. According to Lee, each city can and should have only one church.
Denominationalism is seen as of the Devil. According to critics, the effect
is that Lee-led local churches, usually called by the name of their cities (e.g.,
the Church in Anaheim or the Church in Chicago), become the only true expressions
of the Body of Christ. Thus, according to former members, all other churches
or denominations are seen as being outside the will of God or not true churches
at all. The Local Church has also gained a reputation for threatening legal
action to prevent unfavorable public evaluation of its movement. Even Christian
critics have been targeted, adding to the evidence that they do not consider
believers outside their movement to be true or obedient Christians (1 Corinthians
The Lodge: See Freemasonry.
Lord Industries, Hancock, WI: Occult,
New Age periodical/catalog.
Lotus: New Age periodical.
Louis Foundation, Louis, Eastsound, WA: New Age,
cosmic consciousness, Unmanifested Reality, Inner secrets, True Realization
Loving Relationships Training, Sondra Ray: New Age,
Lucifer: Another name for Satan.
Lucifer Trust/Lucis Trust: See Arcane School.
Lucis Trust: See Arcane School.
Lumen Foundation, San Francisco, CA: Occult, Tarot,
alchemy, esoteric traditions,
Kabbalah. Publishes the Gnosis journal.
Lumin Essence Productions, Oakland, CA: New Age,
channeling, spirit entities, Ascended
Masters Orin and DaBen. Publishes Birth Into Light newsletter.
Luna Astrological Services, Flint, MI: Astrology.
Mackey, Albert: See Freemasonry.
MacLaine, Shirley: Former film actress turned New
Age author; seminars, channeling, pantheism,
Mafu: Spirit supposedly channeled by Penny
Magi Center, Inc., Paradise, CA: Psychic
channeling, Higher Beings, meditation, cosmic
friends, astral worlds.
Magic: (Magick) Occult ceremonial
use of amulets and talismans. May involve necromancy
or divination, invocation of infernal deities or use
of natural elements to gain supernatural power or knowledge. The word magic
is also used to describe a type of stage performance involving legerdemain (slight
of hand) or illusion with no alleged psychic or occult
power. This type of stage magic is not inherently evil, although occultists
have occasionally used stage magic in an attempt to claim supernatural abilities.
MagicThe Gathering: A fantasy role playing
card game involving Satanism, witchcraft (see Wicca),
and the occult.
Maharishi Ayur-Ved Foundation: Promotes teachings of Maharishi
Mahesh Yogi, the founder of Transcendental Meditation.
Maharishi International University, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Fairfield,
IA: New Age or Hindu beliefs,
started by founder of Transcendental Meditation.
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Founder of Transcendental
Mahavira: See Jainism.
Mahikari, Kutama Okada, Houston, TX: Japanese philosophy, Divine light
purifies the soul, mind and body.
Malcolm X: See Nation of Islam.
Mandragore, New York, NY: Egyptian rituals, alchemy,
polytheism, goddess worship,
teachings of Aleister Crowley.
Mantra: Eastern mysticism
or New Age term for a word or series of words that are
repeated over and over either verbally or silently. The Mantra is said to help
one achieve an altered state of consciousness. Often
practiced during meditation or relaxation exercises.
Marah, Madison, NJ: Occult, magic,
goddess worship, Egyptian revival, Wicca,
moon festivals, divination, runes,
Maranatha Ministries, Brooklyn, MI: End-times false
prophecy group. Taught Christ would return in 1998.
Mark-Age, Miami, FL: New Age, light-Body manifestations,
UFOs, Lord Sananda, Christ-consciousness.
Mark Proberts Educational Foundation and Kethra EDa (Teachers
of Light): See Church of E Yada di Shi-ite.
Martindale, Craig: Installed as president of
The Way International by founder Victor Paul Weirwille in
1982. Martindale resigned leadership April 20, 2000, after a former member filed
a lawsuit accusing him of forcing her into a sexual relationship.
Marxism/Leninism, Karl Marx, Frederick Engels,
V.I. Lenin: Atheistic philosophy of communism based on the class struggle
theory of socioeconomic evolution derived from dialectic materialism. Sometimes
confused by the uninformed with biblical mandates to care for the poor, and
the voluntary sharing of resources practiced by some primitive Christians. Marxism
advocates establishment of a classless, stateless society by revolutionary force;
it has always led, however, to totalitarian statism, and has never successfully
eliminated any class but the bourgeoisie, the middle class, leaving the
great majority of its subjects in poverty. It is militantly atheistic. Marx
wrote, The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the
highest being for man. He contended that man looked for a superhuman
being in the fantastic reality of heaven and found nothing there but the reflection
of himself. Wrote Engels, .we have once and for all declared war
on religion and religious ideas and care little whether we are called atheists
or anything else. Citing Marx and Engels as his authorities, Lenin declared
that the philosophical basis of Marxism is a materialism which
is absolutely atheistic and positively hostile to all religion. His hostility
bordered on hysteria: Every religious idea, every idea of God, even flirting
with the idea of God, is unutterable vileness . vileness of the most dangerous
kind, contagion of the most abominable kind. Millions of sins, filthy
deeds, acts of violence and physical contagions . are far less dangerous than
the subtle, spiritual idea of a God decked out in the smartest ideological
customs.. Every defense or justification of the idea of God, even the most refined,
the best intentioned, is a justification of reaction.
Mary's House of David, Mary Purnell, Benton Harbor, MI: Founded
by the widow of Benjamin Purnell. See House of David.
Masonry: See Freemasonry.
Master of Life, Dick Sutphen, Agoura Hills, CA:
New Age, Reiki, astrology,
automatic writing. Publishes the Winners newspaper.
Masters, Roy: Founder of the Foundation of
Matagiri Sri Aurobindo Center: New Age, yoga,
Divine reality, Great Mother, self perfection.
Maya: The Hindu principle
that all is an illusion and that ultimately the physical world, contacted
through the conscious mind and the five senses, does not represent reality.
This philosophy is also taught by many within the New
Maya Factor, Jose Arguelles: New Age book
on which the Harmonic Convergence was based.
Mayan Order, San Antonio, TX: New Age, Unity
between mans Inner force and Cosmic Universal force. Publishes Mayan Mysteries
McKean, Kip: See International Churches of Christ.
Meditation: Entering an altered
state of consciousness by use of a mantra, yoga,
deep relaxation techniques, controlled breathing or visualization.
Often linked to Eastern metaphysical philosophies, the New
Age and/or Eastern religions, these techniques promote the emptying
of the mind or the suspension of critical thinking. This is different from biblical
Meditation where one is encouraged to meditate on God, His attributes
or His word, employing the whole mind (Joshua 1:8; Luke 10:27).
Meditation Group for New Age, Ojai, CA: Esoteric
Medium: A psychic or channeler
who claims to be able to contact and communicate with the dead, as in a seance.
Such occult communication with the dead, known as necromancy,
is forbidden in the Bible.
Mega: Periodical of the New Age Community Church.
Megiddo Mission Church, L.T. Nichols, Rochester, NY: Denies Trinity;
Heaven and Hell are illusions; the Devil is of mans
Menhir: Long Stone. See Stonehenge.
Meridians: See Chi, Yin
and Yang, Acupuncture.
Mesmer, Franz: Founder of Mesmerism.
Mesmerism: An 18th century movement begun in
France by the Austrian doctor Franz Anton Mesmer, who believed that astrological
influence on humans was conveyed through a force or substance similar to magnetism.
He first began treating patients with magnets or charged fluids but quickly
modified his position, theorizing that cures were actually coming from an energy
or mysterious magnetic fluid coming from the hands, voice, or nervous
system of the practitioner. This invisible substance or magnetism was thought
to be similar to electro-magnetism and was dubbed Animal Magnetism.
Mesmers pupils were later able to induce a magnetic sleep
(trance state or hypnotic condition) in their patients. The term Mesmerism eventually
became analogous with hypnosis and was linked with both
Spiritualism and Mind Science
religions. See Altered States of Consciousness.
Messianic Assemblies of Yahweh, North Warren,
PA: Sacred Name group; publishes The Messianic
Metaphysics: (Meta, after
or beyond; physics physical). Originally any
study or discussion of non-physical, spiritual, or non-material realities. Later,
in modern usage, it usually means experimentation with, belief in, or practice
of magic, psychic powers, or the
Metaphysical Institute for Research and Development, Dallas, TX: New
Age, Christ-consciousness, man is divine, meditation
breathing, God is All.
Metaphysical Union, Hank Krastman,
Encino, CA: New Age, mystic knowledge, psychic,
channeling, Edgar Cayce materials.
Publishes The Unexplained magazine.
Meyer, Aleta, Albuquerque, NM: New Age, psychic,
Michael, Sandra: Channeler, astral
Midwest Research of Michigan, Walled Lake, MI: Visualization,
deep relaxation techniques, Subliminal tapes.
Milieu Control: One of eight criteria
of Mind Control according to Robert
Liftons theory of Thought Reform. Milieu control is the systematic,
strict regulation of human communication, relationships, and access to outside
information and alternative viewpoints.
Miller, Monte Kim: See "Concerned
Miller, William: Baptist lay minister from Low
Hampton, New York who was excommunicated for teachings that Christ
would return in 1844. Although Miller repented after his prediction failed and
opposed further speculations, his teachings gave rise to Adventism.
Mind/Body Medical Institute, Herbert Benson, Cambridge, MA: Affiliated
with Harvard Medical School, the Institute was founded by Dr. Herbert Benson,
the Chief of Behavioral Medicine at Harvard, to research and train practitioners
in holistic health.
Mind Control: (Thought Reform, brainwashing)
While evangelicals are lack consensus on the nature, extent or, in some cases,
even existence of Mind Control, the Bible does warns against seducers, deceivers,
and exploiters who employ methods that can bring about spiritual harm and/or
personal abuse. The Mind Control or Thought Reform model, as for instance developed
by Robert Lifton, suggests that there are specific methods
of deception that can be employed by abusive spiritual leaders that may result
in a diminished capacity for critical thinking and suppression of autonomy in
their followers. These methods are believed to involve an intense social
influence conditioning program which may include a closed system of authoritarian
control, manipulative, group dynamics, a system of punishment and rewards, induced
dissociation or trance induction, information control,
fraud, coercion, and double binds. Depending on the
number and intensity of undue influence elements, and a person's own unique
susceptibilities, one may experience a pseudo personality change and marked
debilitation, compliance, and servitude. The Mind Control model should not be
interpreted to mean that the subject is not responsible for the consequences
of his or her decisions and actions. The Mind Control theory is not justification
for holding individuals against their will or for conducting forcible, involuntary
Mind Power Technique: New Age process to read
auras and balance chakras.
Mind Sciences: A generic, general classification
of religious groups that hold to the belief that human beings are inherently
divine and that mind or thoughts are energy forms that can create and/or alter
reality. Most often used in reference to the American religions formed since
the middle of the 19th century, especially Christian
Science, New Thought, and Religious
Science, that deny the actuality of sin, sickness, and/or death and promote
health though mental practices.
Miracle Distribution Center, Fullerton, CA: A Course
in Miracles promotional organization. Publishes The Holy Encounter
Mitchell, Wayman: Founder of the Potters
House church movement.
Mo Letters: See The Family (Children of
Modalism: (Patripassianism, Modalistic Monarchianism,
Sabellianism, Jesus Only, Oneness Pentecostalism) Originally,
a second and third century heresy that denies the doctrine of the Trinity,
teaching there is only one Person in the Godhead. While the Trinity doctrine
teaches three distinct Persons, modalism maintains that one Person (usually
the Father) has manifested Himself at different times under different names
(Jesus/Spirit) or modes. Thus, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost
are three names for the same Person. Originally taught in various forms by Noetus,
Praxeas and Sabellius. Modified forms of this doctrine can be found in the teachings
of William Branham, some Apostolic
churches and the United Pentecostal Church.
Mother Ruth: See Science of Man.
Mohammed: Founder of the world religion of Islam.
Monarchianism: View found primarily in the
third century that denied the Trinity, arguing that because
Gods nature is one He cannot exist eternally in three Persons. The two
most popular forms of monarchianism were dynamic
monarchianism and modalism.
Mon-Ka Retreat and Universal Mother Marys Garden
of Healing, Energy, Love and Light, Mary Pacquette, Gabriel Green, Grass
Valley, CA: Channeling, UFOs, I
AM teachings of St. Germain, Ascended
Masters, crystals, Rosicrucian
teachings, psychic readings. Publishes the News
From The Mountain Top newsletter.
Monroe Institute, Robert Monroe, Faber, VA: Out-of-Body
experiences, Evolution of Human Consciousness.
Moon, Sun Myung: Founder of the Unification Church.
Moonies: Nickname for followers of Rev. Sun Myung Moons Unification
Church. Considered a derogatory term by members.
Mormon Fundamentalism: A loose collection of doctrines
and practices maintained by splinter groups of The Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). These splinter groups attempt to
adhere to the tenets of earlier LDS leaders such as Joseph Smith and Brigham
Young. Expressions of Mormon fundamentalism may include polygamy (forbidden
by the LDS Church in the 1890s), communal living, and the blood
Mormonism: Common name for The Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints.
Moses de Leon: See Kabbalah.
Moyers, Bill: Former Baptist who is known for his
exploration of New Age themes on public television. On
PBS specials he promoted Joseph Campbells Power
of Myth as well as holistic health, i.e., New Age
MSIA, John-Roger Hinkins: See Church of the Movement
of Spiritual Inner Awareness.
Muhammad: See Mohammed.
Muhammad, Elijah: See Nation of Islam.
Murray, Arnold: Pastor of the Shepherds Chapel.
Muscle Testing: See Applied
Music Square Church: See Alamo Christian Foundation.
Muslim: Follower of the religion of Islam.
Mysteria Products Company: See Dorene Publishing.
Mystical Crossroads, Atco, NJ: Occult, magick,
neo-paganism, witchcraft (see Wicca).
Access to over 35,000 metaphysical books; sells incense,
oils, cauldrons, candles, crystals, statues and the complete
Wiccan Altar Set.
Mystical Manipulation: One of eight
criteria of Mind Control according to Robert
Lifton's theory of Thought Reform. A group dynamic involving contrived,
manipulated behavior designed to appear spontaneous which produces feelings
and/or actions that are misinterpreted as spiritual phenomena.
Mysticism: The theory or belief that man can
know God or religious truth through the inward perception of the mind, internal
illumination, or special revelation, and that such knowledge is more immediate,
direct, and reliable than that obtained by ordinary understanding or sense perception.
Narcanon, Los Angeles, CA: Promotes Scientology
Nation of Islam, Elijah Muhammad: A sect of Islam
originating in America composed of black Americans. Followers, sometimes called
Black Muslims, believe that Allah (God) appeared in 1930 to the last great prophet
Elijah Muhammad, in the person of Wallace D. Fard. Elijah Muhammad borrowed
many beliefs from traditional Islam but introduced important differences. Most
notable was the focus on black oppression and equating Satan and evil with the
white race. Malcolm X became a notable leader of the movement in the 1960s and
the focus on black supremacy and militancy escalated. Malcolm X later converted
to traditional Islam and rejected radical black supremacy and was subsequently
murdered. The current leader of the Nation is Islam is Louis Farrakhan. Profile
Nation of Yahweh, Yahweh ben Yahweh (a.k.a.,
Hulon Mitchell, Jr.), Miami, FL: Sacred Name group;
believes God is Black and that Mitchell is God.
National Council for Geocosmic Research, Westchester, IL: Astrology,
magic, karma. Publishes the Tree
of Life newsletter.
National Institute for Clinical Application of Behavioral Medicine,
Mansfield Center, CT: Hypnosis, visualization,
National Spiritual Science Center, Alice
Tindalli, Washington, D.C.: Pantheism, Universal Creative
National Spiritualist Association of Churches, Cassadaga, FL: Occult,
Native American Spirituality: The religious beliefs,
practices, and rituals associated Native Americans. Early Native American beliefs,
though diverse, often shared common religious ideas. Many believed in a Great
Spirit, that nature in all of its forms possesses spirits (animism
or spiritism), and that all life is interconnected.
Seasons and moons often were viewed as marking times of evocation for spirits
and prosperity. Some New Age believers promote revival
of Native American spirituality, seeing obvious parallels with their own views.
Natural Law Party: Political party started by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi,
the father of Transcendental Meditation (TM). Critics allege
it exists to promote the Maharishis religious movement at taxpayers expense
through campaign matching funds provided for political candidates in the United
Natures Sunshine, Kristine Hughes, Spanish Fork, UT: Holistic
health, especially iridology, reflexology,
muscle testing; also visualization.
Publishes the Natures Field newsletter.
Near-death experience (NDE): Any paranormal or supernatural
experience had when a person is near death, including experiences when a person
thinks he or she has died and returned from death. Reports of NDEs have become
numerous in recent decades due to advances in medical technology that make it
possible to revive people from comas and other critical conditions. Many patients
report having out-of-body experiences (OBEs) while they were
unconscious or comatose.
Necromancy: A form of divination
in which a person attempts to discover the future or obtain other information
through communication with the dead, typically using occult
Nelson, Bernard, San Antonio, TX: Occult, talisman,
charms, amulets, UFOs, alchemy. Publishes
The Illustrated Cosmic Machine newsletter.
Neo-Orthodox Christianity: Development associated with the strong reaction
of Swiss theologians Karl Barth and Emil Brunner against the barrenness of liberal
Christianity. They felt that Scripture, although a flawed, fallible, human
product, could still be used by God to accomplish His purposes. Thus the Bible
becomes inspired in its proclamation when the Holy Spirit quickens faith
and obedience in its hearers. Thus, like liberalism, this view results in a
subjective, existential encounter, which denies absolute propositional truth
Neo-Paganism: The modern revival of paganism,
emphasizing witchcraft (see Wicca), goddess worship, and nature worship.
Neo-Pythagorean Gnostic Church: See Proclus Society
and Neo-Pythagorean Gnostic Church.
Nettles, Bonnie Lou: See Heavens Gate.
Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP): New
Age. Techniques developed by Richard Bandler and Dr. John Grinder that allegedly
enable practitioners to read random eye movements and other visual cues during
conversation or counseling to program a clients behavior and restructure
their core beliefs. Called software for the brain, it is supposed
to be faster and more powerful than traditional clinical counseling and can
work without the subjects conscious knowledge. The co-founders have been
heavily involved with other New Age practices. NLP failed
scientific tests conducted by the U.S. Army.
New Age: See the Definitions section in the introduction.
New Age Church of The Christ, Thomas Printz, Long Island, NY: Ascended
Masters, karma, death is an Illusion, Father-Mother
God, man is divine.
New Age Church of Truth, Gilbert Holloway,
Deming, NM: New Age, ESP, Impressional
Readings, psychic development.
New Age Community Church, Phoenix, AZ: New
Age. Publishes Mega magazine.
New Age Journal, Brighton, MA: New Age
New Age Medicine: See Holistic Health.
New Age Music: While there is music composed to promote New
Age philosophy and/or facilitate altered states of consciousness
and meditation, much of the music sold as such is
not explicitly New Age in doctrine. Some light jazz, instrumental music has
been labeled (or re-labeled) New Age simply as a marketing category.
New Age Symposium, Houston, TX: New Age
New Age Teachings, Brookfield, MA: New Age, meditation,
cosmic vibrations, divine energy.
New Church: See Swedenborg Foundation.
New Dimensions Foundation, San Francisco, CA: New
Age, shamanism, Native American
spirituality, homeopathy, goddess
New Life, Vernon Howard, Boulder City, NV: New Age,
channeling, cosmic power.
New Life Clinic, Baltimore, MD: Parapsychology,
psychic phenomena, clairvoyance.
Headquartered at Mount Washington Methodist Church. Associate director, Olga
Worrall, and her husband, Ambrose Worrall, are also affiliated with Spiritual
Frontiers Fellowship and the Association for Research
New Life HealthCenter, Bo-In Lee, Jamaica Plain,
MA: Treats illnesses (from eating disorders to cancer) through Eastern medicine.
See Holistic Health, Acupuncture,
New Realities, Washington, D.C.: New Age
New Thot Free Thot, Bill Greenhouse, Los Angeles, CA: Seeks to combine
the teachings of Christian Science, Unity
School of Christianity and New Thought philosophy.
New Thought: One of the branches of the mind
sciences; unlike Christian Science, New Thought
usually maintains the reality of matter and is more liberal and pluralistic
in its views. Teaches that the Christ is only a principle
that was embodied in Jesus as in other religious figures.
New Times, Seattle, WA: New Age periodical.
New World Publishing, Phoenix, AZ: New Age, uses
A Course in Miracles, channeling,
New Worlds, St. Paul, MN: Catalog of occult publisher
Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd.
New World Translation: Official Bible translation published by the Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society. Key verses have been inaccurately rendered especially
to obscure the deity of Christ. This translation has been
universally rejected as inaccurate by competent Bible scholars.
Newbrough, John: See OAHSPE.
Nichiren Shoshu of America (NSA): Former name
of Soka Gakkai International (SGI).
Nightingale-Conant, Chicago, IL: Publishes books and audio tapes on
personal growth, business, positive mental attitude, and self help. A significant
portion of their material contains New Age themes.
Nirvana: Hindu state of
enlightenment or bliss.
Niscience, Glendale, CA: New Age, karma,
thought talisman, meditation,
Nizhoni School of Global Consciousness, Galisteo, NM: Higher self, Kundalini,
NLP: Acronym for Neuro-Linguistic Programming.
Noahides: See Bnai Noah.
Nova 8, Pueblo, CO: Mother Earth, Christ-consciousness,
Native American Great Spirit is at the heart
of all beings. Publishes the Living Love newsletter.
Nova Mystery School: Alchemy, Atlantis,
Druids, shamanism, Kabbalah.
The Nubian Nation of Moors: See Ancient
Mystic Order of Malchizedek.
Numerology: The occult
use of numbers in divination to discover hidden knowledge.
Often associated with the Kabbalah, magic, psychics
and witchcraft (see Wicca).
Nuwaubians: See Ancient Mystic Order of
OAHSPE, John Newbrough: A 921 page Scripture
written in 1881 by John B. Newbrough, a psychic and spiritualist
who was allegedly gifted in ESP. OAHSPE is translated sky,
earth, spirit. See Universal Faithists of Kosmon.
Oasis Fellowship, Florence, AZ: Similar to Unity School
Occult: From the Latin word, hidden. See under the Definitions
section in the introduction.
Occult Americana, Panesville, OH: Occult
/ pagan periodical.
Odinism: A return to the gods of Norse mythology, Odin being the chief
or supreme god, also known as Woden or Wotan. Originally worshipped as the god
or warriors or leaders, it is his responsibility to delay, as long as possible,
Ragnarok, the day of doom. He gained use of the Runes
and passed these on to men.
Olcott Library, Wheaton, IL: New Age library,
Omega Institute for Holistic Studies, Hudson River Valley, NY: New
Age, aromatherapy, Kabbalah
studies, astrology, crystals,
Omega Press, New Lebanon, NY: Sufism. Publishes
the Omega Press newspaper.
One to Grow On, Trenna Sutphen, Malibu, CA: New Age,
subliminal tapes for children, magic, and higher self.
Oneness Pentecostalism: (Jesus Only) A heresy
that emerged from the mainstream Pentecostal movement during the years 19141916.
Unlike traditional Pentecostals, Oneness followers deny the doctrine
of the Trinity in favor of a view similar to Monarchianism.
In addition to this heresy, most Oneness Pentecostal organizations also teach
that speaking in tongues, baptism (in Jesus name only), and maintaining
various moral standards are necessary for salvation. See Salvation
by Works, Modalism. Profile
Order of Rhea, Chicago, IL: Magic, paganism,
Order of the Cross, J. Todd Ferrier: States of realization, Christhood
(see Christ-consciousness), meditation.
Order of the Solar Temple: Headed by Luc Jouret
and Joseph Di Mambro, this group dabbles in New Age holistic
health, Rosicrucian-like rites. 53 members
were victims of suicide and/or murder in Switzerland and Canada in 1994. Profile
Order of the Star: See Krishnamurti Foundation
Ordo Adeptorum Invisiblum, Chicago, IL: Magic rituals,
Egyptian goddess Maat, teachings of Aleister Crowley.
Ordo Templi Ashtart (OTA), Pasadena, CA: Rosicrucianism
splinter group. Publishes The Seventh Ray journal.
Ordo Templi Baph-Metis (OTB), James M. Martin, Corpus Christi, TX: Occult,
Ordo Templi Orientis: Occult,
Satanism. See Crowley, Aleister.
Orr, Leonard: See Rebirthing International.
Orthodox Christianity: Generically the term
orthodox refers to traditional, conservative forms of Christianity,
upholding the traditional Christian beliefs about God as a Trinity
and about Jesus Christ as taught
in the churchs early creeds. In this sense orthodox Christianity includes
conservative Roman Catholics, and Protestant, evangelical
Christianity, and is opposed both to liberal Christianity
within Christian denominations and to the teachings of the cults. More specifically,
the term Orthodox (with a capital O; or, Eastern Orthodox) refers to the state
churches of Eastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean who split with Roman
Catholicism of the West largely over the issue of papal authority.
Ouija Board: Occult game
using wooden board and pointer which spells out messages allegedly from the
dead (a form of necromancy). Many such messages are
derived from the subconscious of the operators; however, there is always potential
for demonic influence.
Our Lady of Enchantment, Sabrina, Danville, CA: Paganism,
witchcraft (see Wicca), the craft, goddess
worship, moon festivals, psychic powers.
Out-of-Body Experience (OBE): Any experience in which
a person believes that his or her spirit has temporarily left the physical body
and then returned to that same body. Some OBEs are associated with near-death
experiences; others are induced through occult or
mystical practices, especially in Astral Projection.
Pacific Institute, Louis Tice, Seattle, WA: New Age,
stress management seminars, changing core beliefs.
Pacific West Fellowship: Splinter group of The Way International.
Pagan Spiritual Alliance, Selena Fox, Mt. Horeb, WI: Paganism,
worship of gods and goddesses, Mother Earth. Publishes
Pagan Way, Philadelphia, PA: Paganism, denies
reality of sin.
Paganism: Historically, paganism has been used
as a generic term to describe primitive non-Christian religions and superstitions,
including religions centered on the occult. More recently
paganism is used as an umbrella term referring to Wicca/witchcraft,
ceremonial magic, nature worship, polytheism
(especially female deities), and ancient mythologies (Celt, Norse, Egyptian,
Greek and Roman).
Palm Reading: (Chiromancy) The occult
practice of divination, i.e., predicting the future
or gaining hidden knowledge, by reading the shape, lines, or markings on the
palm of the hand.
Pan African Orthodox Christian Church, Detroit,
MI: Founded by Albert B. Cleage, Jr. a.k.a. Jaramogi Abebe Agyeman. Part of
the Black Christian Nationalist Movement. Teaches Jesus
is the Black Messiah sent to rebuild the Black Nation Israel and liberate the
Black People from oppression, brutality, and exploitation of the white gentile
world (from the Black Nationalist Creed).
Pan-American Indian Association: Promotes Native American
Panentheism: View of God taught in Process
Pantheism: The belief that all is One
and that One is God, thus all is God. This God is an all-encompassing,
impersonal principle or force. A central doctrine for most eastern religions
and New Age groups.
Papa Jim San Antonio, TX: Occult,
paganism, talismans, herbs.
Publishes the Papa Jim quarterly catalog. See Cesar.
Parapsychology: The study of ESP
and other supernatural phenomena dating to the foundation of the English Society
of Physical Research in 1882 and continued through laboratory research at Duke
University Parapsychology Laboratory, Stanford Research Institute and elsewhere.
This movement attempts to give scientific validity to occult
and/or paranormal activities such as the alleged psychic
abilities of Uri Geller.
Parascience Institute, Evanston, IL: Psychic
powers, yoga, psychometry, auras,
Past Life Regression: New
Age practice associated with hypnosis which allows
one to discover ones past lives; assumes reality of reincarnation.
Pastoral Bible Institute, Milwaukee, WI: Bible Students
Path of Light, Charlotte, NC: New Age, auras,
chakras, Universal Mother, reincarnation.
Pathways: Ramana Maharshi, Sarasota, FL: Mixture of Hinduism
and Taoism. Publishes Pathways: The Journal of Spiritual
Patrick, Ted: Controversial practitioner of deprogramming.
Patripassianism: Name for a kind of modalism
or monarchianism; the word means that the Father
(patri-) suffered and died (-passian) on the cross.
Peace Community Church, Washington, D.C.: Jesus
the mystic, crystal clear vibration techniques, Christ-consciousness,
Peace Mission Movement: Based on the teaching of founder
Father Divine, which contains elements of New
Thought, asceticism, perfectionism, utopian communalism, and denies existence
of race and strictly prohibits discrimination among members. Requires all members
to turn over all property and income, severing all ties to everything but the
Peace Mission. Room, board, and a small allowance for incidentals are provided
in exchange for otherwise unpaid labor in Peace Mission owned businesses or
projects. Father Divine did not actually claim to be God, but he fostered the
belief in his followers, and required loyalty and obedience from them due only
to God. The group claims the biblical prophecies about the coming Jewish Messiah
and Christs second coming were all fulfilled by
Peace Pole: New Age / occult;
poles or obelisks around which people sit in order to practice meditation
or visualization of World Peace or other topics
important to those meditating.
Peacevision, Houston, TX: Visualization;
known for the blue and white bumper stickers that read Visualize World
Peale, Norman Vincent: Was a popular writer, promoter
of the belief in the power of positive thinking popularized through the interfaith
magazine, Guideposts. Peales views of Christianity were heavily
influenced by his mentor Ernest Holmes, the founder of Religious
Science, and also reflected the philosophies of New
Thought, and Unity.
Pearl of Great Price: One of the scriptures or Standard Works
of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Peck, M. Scott: New Age author
and lecturer influenced by Buddhism and Eastern metaphysics.
His best known book is The Road Less Traveled.
Pelley, William D.: New Age author.
Pentagram: An important occult
symbol consisting of a five-pointed star with a single point at the top that
is used in ceremonial magic, often representing the Microcosm.
Called a Pentacle when depicted with a circle around it. The Pentagram is considered
a positive forcethe opposite of the Goats Head
or Baphomet symbol that is made by inverting the Pentagram
(two points at the top).
Pentecostal Assemblies of the World (PAW), Indianapolis,
IN: Oldest of the Apostolic churches. Oneness Pentecostal.
Publishes Christian Outlook.
Pentecostal Churches of Apostolic Faith: Oneness
People House, Denver, CO: New Age, subjective
truth, Inner wisdom guiding, karma.
Peoples Temple Christian Church, Jim Jones,
Jonestown, Guyana: Jones, influenced by Unitarian Humanism, Father
Divine, and Marxism, founded his church in 1977.
He later claimed at various times to be God, Buddha, and
Lenin. In 1978 at Jones command, 914 people (including Jones) committed
suicide or were murdered. The group is now defunct.
Peyote: Hallucinogenic used by some Native
American and New Age groups as a sacrament in order to
produce altered states of consciousness.
Peyote Way Church of God, Anne L. Zapf, Willcox, AZ: Native
American rituals, use the drug peyote as a sacrament.
Publishes The Sacred Record newsletter.
Phanes, Grand Rapid, MI: New Age, paganism,
goddess worship, alchemy, Kabbalah.
Philadelphia Church of God, Gerald Flurry, Edmond, OK: Armstrongism
splinter group. Publishes The Philadelphia Trumpet magazine.
Philadelphia Congregation of Yahweh, William Scampton, Philadelphia,
PA: Sacred name group. Publishes the Yahwehs
Philosophic Community Center, Denver, CO: New Age,
Egyptian rites, man is Divine. Publishes the Colorado Mind, Spirit and Soul
Philosophical Publishing Co., Quakertown, PA: See Rosicrucianism.
Philosophical Research Society, Manly P. Hall Los Angeles, CA: New
Age, Kabbalah, past lives (reincarnation),
third eye, Buddhism, Zen, Christ
Principle (cf. Christ-consciousness).
Pike, Albert: See Freemasonry.
Plain Truth, The: Magazine of the Worldwide Church
Planet Health, Arlington, TX: Yoga, meditation.
Plural Covenant: See Dual Covenant.
Poltergeist: From German (rattling ghost); an apparently
supernatural disturbance attributed to a ghost or spirit.
Usually associated with the visible movement of physical objects by an unseen
spiritual (that is, occult) force. See Demon,
Polytheism: The belief in the existence of
a plurality of gods, in contrast to monotheism (one God) or atheism
(no God or gods). Examples include Greek, Roman and Norse mythology; ancient
Egyptian, Babylonian, and Assyrian religions; and some forms of neo-paganism,
Wicca, and New Age belief. Some forms
of Hinduism combine polytheism with pantheism
(all is God). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
teaches a form of Christianized polytheism, since it holds that the Father,
Son, and Holy Ghost are three Gods and that human beings can become exalted
Positive Confession: Alternative name for the
Potters House, Wayman Mitchell, Prescott,
AZ: Originally called Victory Chapel, churches affiliated with Mitchell go under
the names Praise Chapel, The Door, Grace Chapel, The Christian Fellowship, La
Capilla de la Victory, La Casa Del Alfarero, and La Puerta. Begun in 1970, Mitchell
has over 1,000 churches in 73 countries including Mexico, South America, Australia,
Europe, and the Philippines. Numerous former members have alleged mind
control and authoritarian/abusive leadership, and the group was the focus
of a CBS News 48 Hours investigative report. Mitchells churches
are not affiliated with the Potters House in Dallas, TX, pastored by T.
D. Jakes. Also, The Door is not affiliated with the religious satire magazine
by the same name.
Power for Abundant Living: Older name for the main recruitment
and initial indoctrination course (and book by the same title) for potential
members of The Way International, as developed and taught
by its founder Victor Paul Wierwille. His successor, Craig
Martindale, produced a revised version of the course entitled The Way
of Abundance and Power.
PPPANA, Macan, GA: New Age, yoga,
meditation, goddess worship.
Praise Chapel: See Potters House.
Prana: See Chi.
Presleyterianism: See First Presleyterian Church
of Elvis the Divine.
Process Church of the Final Judgement, Robert
de Grimston: Occult, Three Great Gods who are Jehovah,
Lucifer, and Satan. Dualismunity of Christ and Satan,
both are equally good and should be loved. Grimston who wrote, As It Is,
was ousted in 1974. Several splinters formed. Charles Manson was reported to
be a member at one time.
Process Theology: Built on the philosophy of Alfred
North Whitehead, process theology is a heresy within liberal
Christianity that holds that reality is becoming rather than being - in
process rather than static. The Bible has a relative authority in that it concurs
with ones own self-evident experiences, rather than having absolute authority
over all human experiences and beliefs, as in evangelical
Christianity. Process theology teaches panentheism
(God is in all), which is to be distinguished from pantheism (God is all). Panentheism
teaches that even though God is somehow transcendent, He also includes the world
within Himself. Therefore, God is in process, evolving along with
creation into future possibilities. Some New Agers (e.g.,
Matthew Fox) and some Mormons have found value in process
Proclus Society and Neo-Pythagorean Gnostic Church,
Chicago, IL: Mixture of occult, Theosophy
and Rosicrucianism; teaches yoga,
Project X: See Jamilian University of the Ordained.
Prophet, Elizabeth Clare and Mark: See Church Universal
Prosperity Doctrine: Alternative name for Positive
Confession; the term also can apply to some Mind Science
Prosperos, Thane, Santa Monica, CA: New
Age, occultism, yoga, claims people
become God. Publishes The Prosperos newsletter.
Prosveta U.S.A., Omraam Mikhael Aivanhov, Los Angeles, CA: Yoga,
clairvoyance, esoteric Hinduism.
Publishes the Circle of Light newsletter.
Protestantism: Often used generically of
all Christian churches that are neither Roman
Catholic nor Orthodox, the term more specifically
refers to the movement that originated in the 16th century Reformation.
Luther, Zwingli, Calvin and others led efforts to correct, reform or protest
the errors in doctrine and practice that they saw in medieval Roman Catholicism.
The 16th century Protestants saw their main doctrinal differences with Catholicism
to include: Soli Deo Gloria (only to Gods glory, Gods
wisdom and glory as opposed to church/papal sovereignty); Sola Scriptura
(Scripture only, the authority of the Bible over official Papal
interpretation and tradition), and Sola Gratia (salvation
by grace alone, eternal life received from God as a free gift
by grace through faith in the imputed righteousness of Christ
rather than by works, rituals, or sacraments).
PROUT, Northampton, MA: An acronym for Progressive
Utilization Theory, a Hinduism-based spiritual program teaching meditation
and yoga that claims to enable life forms to progress from
animals to divinity. PROUT is promoted by Ananda Marga,
who hopes to establish through practice of the Theory a single world government
and religion. Proutist Universal, Ananda Margas formal organization for
promoting PROUT, publishes Prout Journal and Global Times.
Psionics: See First Universal Church of God-Realization.
Psychedelic Venus Church San Francisco, CA: Paganism,
goddesses Venus and Aphrodite.
Psychiana, Frank Robinson: New Age, metaphysics,
not all have sinned, similar to Christian Science
or Unity School of Christianity.
Psychic: Occult, New
Age. A person with alleged supernatural or paranormal powers used to gain
hidden knowledge apart from five senses (divination);
or, that which relates to such person or gift. Profile
Psychic Healing: An occult form of New
Age, holistic health care involving the alleged
use or balancing of healing energy through touch or hand movements by the practitioner
over the patient to bring health. Also, employing spirit guides to aid in health.
Psychic Learning Center, Martha Woodworth Rockport, MA: Occult/New
Age, Tarot reading, psychic
Psychokinesis: Supposed ability to control
movement of physical objects by the power of the mind alone, apart from the
laws of natural physics.
Psychomancy: A form of divination based on
communication with spirit entities or ghosts.
Psychometry: The supposed ability to discover
facts about an object or an individual connected with it, by being close to,
or in contact with, the object.
Psynetic Foundation, Anaheim, CA: New Age, channeling,
astrology, promotes A Course in
Miracles. Publishes Psynetic Calendar newsletter.
Puranas: Hindu sacred scriptures consisting
of myths, legends, and historical events; also occasionally used by those in
the New Age movement.
Pursel, Jach: New Age, channeler
of spirit entity called Lazaris.
Pyramid Power: The belief, typically based on pyramidology,
that ancient pyramids or the geometric shape of a pyramid generates or directs
occult power or energy. Profile
Pyramidology: Study of the Ancient Egyptian
and/or Central American Mayan pyramids, which are believed to possess keys to
hidden mystic knowledge or secret spiritual messages. See also Pyramid
Power. Profile available.
Qabalah/Qabbalah: Alternative spellings for Kabbalah.
Quartus Foundation, John Price, Boerne, TX: New Age,
meditation, healing the planet, Journey to the Fourth
Quest For Excellence, Dallas, TX: New Age, Star
Chamber for altered states of consciousness, self-realization,
Quimby, Phineas P.: Mesmerist
and healer whose metaphysical theories influenced Mary Baker Eddy (founder of
Christian Science)and New
Thought and other Mind Science religions.
Radiant School, Kenneth Wheller, Mount Shasta, CA: New
Age, Ascended Masters, Great White
Radical Feminism: An outgrowth of the more moderate
feminist movement which sought to influence societal views and laws to reflect
womens equality and opportunity with men in all areas of culture. Radical feminism,
however, pushes for a revolution to free themselves from male enslavement and
exploitation. Among those holding this ideology are some lesbians who attempt
to perpetuate an actual anti-male position. Theologically, radical feminism
finds influence in diverse religious traditions including liberal
Christianity, liberation theology, goddess worship,
Wicca, neo-paganism, and New
Age beliefs. The diversity of the movement aids in widespread recruitment
and promotes otherwise unusual political and religious alliances.
Raelian Religion, The, Claude Vorilhon (a.k.a.
Rael): UFO group founded by French journalist Vorilhon, who
claims to have communication with god-like extraterrestrials known as the Elohim.
Publications include: Apocalypse (a quarterly magazine), The Book
Which Tells the Truth, and Sensual Meditation. Profile
Rainbow, Dallas, TX: New Age, psychic,
uses A Course in Miracles text, shamanism.
Publishes the Rainbow newspaper.
Rainbow, Charlotte, NC: New Age, Ascended
Masters, rebirthing, past
life regression. Publishes the Pathways newsletter.
Rainbow Earth Dwelling Society, J. Christine Hayes, San Antonio, TX:
New Age, chakras, telepathy, Tarot.
Rainbow Group (Rainbow People): Nomadic, New Age,
communal society found mostly in the southeastern U.S.
Raja Yoga: See Yoga.
Ram Dass, a.k.a. Richard Alpert: New Age guru.
Ramtha: Spirit entity supposedly channeled by J.
Rastafarianism, (Ras Tafari, Rastas) Marcus Garvey: African/Jamaican
religion. Teaches that the late king of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, is God. Profile
Ray, Sondra: See Rebirthing International.
REACH, Inc. (a.k.a. Holyland), Bishop Luke Edwards,
Meridian, MS; Emele, AL: Extreme Oneness Pentecostal
group, formerly associated with Pentecostal Assemblies of the
World. Both adults and children raise funds by going on the route
(going on the road for weeks at a time to solicit funds). The most common approach
is for children to solicit funds outside stores under the pretense of raising
money for abused children. Profile
Rebirthing: New Age.
Participants rid themselves of negative karma (traumas/problems)
by being regressed back to the womb and reenacting the trauma of their birth
experience or previous births (reincarnation).
Originally hot tubs or saunas were used but later practitioners developed dry
Rebirthing International, Leonard Orr: Co-author
of Rebirthing in the New Age with Sondra Ray; helped develop and popularize
the New Age practice of rebirthing.
Recovery Version of the New Testament: Version used by the The
Redaction criticism: A relatively new branch
of biblical literary criticism that attempts to infer
the theological purposes of the redactors (anonymous editors, compilers,
or revisers) who are thought to have helped to rewrite or shape various books
of the Bible (especially the Gospels) into their final form. Whereas form
criticism focuses on discerning the literary form and origins of specific
passages, redaction criticism focuses on the use of those passages to convey
the message of the book as a whole. Redaction criticism assumes that the book
in question was written using different sources that were selected and edited
to emphasize or convey certain theological concepts. Scholars in liberal
Christianity typically assume further that the books that draw on the same
sources (notably the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke) use those sources to
convey conflicting ideas. Scholars in evangelical Christianity
are divided as to whether a mild form of redaction criticism can be legitimately
employed without impugning the inerrancy of the Bible.
Redfield, James: New Age
astrologer and author of the best-selling fiction,
The Celestine Prophecy.
Reflexology: New Age,
holistic health practice that purports to heal the body
through massaging certain parts of the foot or hand that allegedly correspond
to the major organs of the body. It is sometimes believed to work by opening
blocked meridians in the body which will then allow
the bodys energy or chi to flow freely. The foot or
hand is seen as a microcosm of the human body and/or the universe.
Reformation: The 16th century movement initiated
by Martin Luther, initially intended to correct, protest, or reform the doctrines
and practices of Roman Catholicism. Luthers efforts
(later joined and expanded by Zwingli, Bucer, Calvin and others) quickly developed
into a complete break with Catholicism. The reformers major doctrinal
issues included a rejection of: the authority of the following: the authority
of the Pope, church control of Bible translation and interpretation, a distinction
in value between laity and clergy, and salvation being a product of the church
and its sacraments (salvation by works). A more thorough
(and in some cases unorthodox) reform occurred with the Radical Reformationthe
orthodox Anabaptist movement being an example. To various degrees, virtually
all Protestant denominations today share a common
heritage concerning the issues of the Reformation.
Reiki: New Age, metaphysical
theory of holistic health involving the movement of
the practitioners hand over and near (but not on) the patients body
to allegedly balance or redirect energy chakras.
Reincarnation: Belief originating with religions
of the East (e.g. Hinduism) that when a person dies
he has the ability to come again to the earth, inhabit a new body, and live
as many lives as needed to progress towards a religious goal. Whereas Hindus
typically believe that reincarnation includes transmigration of souls between
animal, plant, and even inanimate forms, New Age believers
typically restrict reincarnation to human and celestial forms. Reincarnation
generally assumes a doctrine of karma. The idea is the
basis for the practice of attempting past life
Religious Science, Ernest Holmes: One
of the Mind Sciences, professes to represent the best thought
of all religions. Similar to New Thought.
Remnant of YHWH, Mark Deacon, Abilene, TX: Sacred
Name splinter group from House of Yahweh;
teaches Sabbatarianism, British
Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
(RLDS), Joseph Smith, III, Independence, MO: Smaller of the two main groups
that originated from Joseph Smiths alleged restoration of the true church.
When Smith died, those who accepted Brigham Young as the Smiths successor
followed him west to Utah; they are known as The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Those who rejected Young and accepted
Smiths son, Joseph Smith, III, remained in Missouri and became known as
the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS). The doctrines
of the two groups eventually became radically different. The RLDS have a slightly
different version of the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants, and they
reject the Pearl of Great Price as scripture. The RLDS do not hold to many of
the LDS distinctive doctrines, including the polygamy of the 19th century LDS
Church and the LDS belief (still held) that God was once a man. In recent years
the church has experienced divisions, with more conservative Restoration
Branches becoming independent. Historically, the RLDS also have had a leader
who was a direct descendant of the Mormon founder, Joseph Smith, Jr. The current
leader and prophet of the movement, Grant McMurray, was the first exception
to this practice. Profile available.
Restoration Branches: A conservative split
from the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
(RLDS) that holds what they believe to be a more classical, historical RLDS
understanding of basic doctrines, Joseph Smith, and the Book
of Mormon. They generally view the institutionalized RLDS church as being
too liberal in theology and perhaps on social issues as well.
Reverend Ike, a.k.a., Frederick Eikerenkoetter, II: Pantheism;
general prosperity doctrine.
R I Research, New York, NY: New Age; selects
people called Beyonders, claims to possess Superior Essence.
Rice, Anne: Author of The Witching Hour, Vampire Chronicles, Interview
with A Vampire, and other books with occult subject
Rice, Nancy, Broomfield, CO: New Age, Tarot
cards, psychic counseling, past
life regression, clairvoyance.
Right Knowledge: See Ancient Mystic Order
Righteous Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,
Gerald Peterson, Cedar City, UT: Small polygamous, Mormon
Fundamentalist splinter group of about 100 people. Peterson claimed that
the spirit of Rulon Allred, who founded the Corporation
of the Presiding Elder of the Apostolic United Brethren, returned to restore
the priesthood to him.
Right Way, The: See Chen Tao.
Road Less Traveled, The: Book written by Peck,
Roberts, Jane: New Age,
of spirit entity called Seth.
Robins, Anthony (or Tony): Business consultant, empowerment, personal
transformation and motivational speaker whose theories often contain New
The Rock of Ages: Annual music concert and convention held by The
Rocky Mountain Institute of Yoga and Ayurveda, Denver, CO: Eastern mysticism,
karma, Tantra, Raja and Bhakti Yoga.
Rocky Mountain Research Institute, Fort Collins, CO: Paranormal research,
reincarnation, self-realization, dowsing,
Rocky Mountain Spiritual Emergence Network, Boulder, CO: New
Age, magic, mystic rituals,
astrology, alchemy. Publishes
the R.M.S.E.N. Times newsletter.
Roman Catholicism: Diverse worldwide religious tradition
that officially looks to the Pope and his predecessors/successors as Gods
human leader of world Christianity. Because of its
size and scopeboth in membership (about a billion people worldwide) and
geographically, the actual beliefs held by devout Catholics are widespread and
eclectic. Catholicism has been influenced by liberation theology,
especially in parts of South America. In Africa, the Caribbean, and elsewhere,
attempts have been made to blend Catholicism with spiritism,
creating a type of Catholicism with occult elements. In
addition, since the 1960s there has been a small but significant element of
charismatic Catholics who have been influenced by the larger charismatic movement.
A small percentage of Catholics are doctrinally evangelical, and others (such
as Matthew Fox) are part of the New Age
movement. As a whole, however, the differences between Roman Catholicism and
Protestantism are still seen most clearly in the
issues of the Reformation. The 16th century reformers
distinguished themselves from Catholicism in two key ways. First, they saw the
Bible as the sole foundation for authority (sola scriptura) rather than
the Pope, church dogma or tradition. Second, the reformers taught salvation
by grace alone (sola gracia). They also insisted that
sola gracia could be faithfully maintained only by understanding the
gospel to be the message of a free pardon and righteous
standing with God through faith alone (sola fide) in the
imputed righteousness of Christ. The Roman Catholic Church claimed (and still
claims) to affirm sola gracia, but anathematized sola fide, teaching
instead that grace is received and maintained by a combination of faith plus
works (religious rites, sacraments, or human endeavor).
Ro-Hun Therapy: Balancing the energy fields of the human body (see chi).
Rosicrucian Anthroposophic League, S.R. Parchment, New York, NY: Break-off
of Rosicrucian Fellowship.
Rosicrucian Fellowship, Max Heindel, Oceanside,
CA: Reincarnation, chakra,
astrology. See Rosicrucianism.
Rosicrucian Foundation, Swinburne Clymer, Quakertown, PA: Oldest group
of Rosicrucianism in the U.S.; reincarnation,
Rosicrucian Order, a.k.a. Ancient and Mystical Order
of the Rosae Crucis (AMORC), H. Spence Lewis, San Jose, CA: Most successful
organization promoting Rosicrucianism in the US.
Esoteric reinterpretation of Christianity;
mixture of occult alchemy, astrology,
Secret Wisdom of past Masters, secret society, magic.
Rosicrucianism, Christian Rosenkreutz:
(Literally the Rose cross) Occult secret society
allegedly founded in 1407 in Germany by Christian Rosenkreutz, who was under
the influence of Egyptian occultism. The movement has fragmented into a number
of competing organizations promoting variations of the same general pantheistic,
occult themes. Similar to Theosophy.
Rowan Tree, Paul Beyerlf, Minneapolis, MN: Paganism,
Mother Earth, magic, astrology.
Publishes The Littlest Unicorn newsletter.
Rune: A figure or character in the ancient Nordic
magical alphabet of 24 symbols. They are used for divinination
of the future, performing magic, or evoking Norse deities.
Russell, Charles Taze: Founder of the Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society.
Sabbatarianism: Generally the view that the
Old Testament Sabbath commandment is to be observed unchanged by the church. As
used in this index, Sabbatarianism refers to an extreme form of the belief in
which membership in the true church, or even salvation, is conditional upon keeping
the Sabbath law. As such, Sabbatarianism is at the least a form of legalism
and at most a denial of salvation by grace. In most cases,
the Jewish Sabbath (Saturday) must be observed by refraining from work, sports,
and travel from sundown Friday evening to sundown Saturday evening. The belief
is often accompanied by the observance of Jewish dietary laws and/or other Old
Sabellianism: Alternative name for Modalism.
Sabin, Robert: A well-known Oneness Pentecostal
pastor, writer, and speaker.
Sabo, Sandra, Gloucester, MA: Channeler, crystal
healing, spirit guides.
Sacred Cycles, Bette Barr-Glover, San Juan Capistrano, CA: Paganism,
divine feminine in each person, numerology, astrology,
guided meditation. Publishes the Sacred Cycles
Sacred Mushroom and the Cross, The, John
Allegro: Book and corresponding church by the late Dead Sea Scroll scholar,
Dr. Allegro. Jesus is allegedly the New Testament
code word for a mushroom to be used as a sacrament to induce hallucinations
and altered states of consciousness.
Sacred Name movement: Although some Orthodox
Jews and others believe that the name of God is too sacred to speak (and/or
fully write), as used in this Index the Sacred Name movement refers to a modern
movement that claims that God must be addressed by a form of the Divine Name
in the Old Testament (Yahweh, Jehovah, Yah, Yahvah, or some other preferred
form). Whichever one true name is chosen, all other terms or names for
God are considered incorrect or references to false deities. Salvation, it is
believed, depends on referring to God by His correct name. Most Sacred Name
groups also teach Sabbatarianism and observe Old
Testament dietary laws and feasts.
Sacred Order of Mystic Christianity, Mountain View, CA: New
Age, mystic keys, Inner God, Christ within, higher
Sacred Science: One of eight criteria of
Mind Control according to Robert
Lifton's theory of Thought Reform. The group considers their doctrines and
beliefs to be sacred and beyond question. Thus, no alternative viewpoint is
allowed to exist and open consideration of alternative ideas and free discussion
Sadhana Society Prescott, AZ: New Age,
ESP, Astral Projection, telekinesis, levitation,
Sage Center, Ann Garner, Arlington, TX: New Age,
Use The Urantia Book as the primary text.
Sage Woman, Point Arena, CA: Paganism, Egyptian
rituals, goddess worship.
Saint Germain: See I AM Movement,
Saint Germain Foundation, Schaumburg, IL: Similar to the I
Salvation by Grace: The doctrine and message
of the gospel that eternal life is not gained by or conditioned
on works but is an undeserved and free gift from God received through faith
in Jesus Christ as the Lord and Savior
who died for our sins and rose from the dead. Contrasted with salvation
Salvation by Works: Any doctrine that denies
salvation by grace alone by teaching that eternal life
is merited, earned, conditioned, or maintained through human effort, religious
ritual, financial donations, obedience to laws/commandments, church membership,
and/or moral behavior.
Samhain: (pronounced Sah-ween) Alternative name for Halloween.
Sanctuary of Gaia, Santa Cruz, CA:Gaia, paganism,
Sanctuary of Revealing Light, Mildred Smith: Spiritualism;
see also International General Assembly of Spiritualists.
Sankirtana: Religious chant or mantra repeated
over and over to draw practitioners into an ever closer state of God-consciousness.
Santeria: Literally worship of the saints,
a syncretism of Roman Catholicism and traditional African
polytheistic religions established when African slaves
were introduced to the Caribbean. Elements include animal sacrifice and voodoo.
Satan, (The Devil, The Serpent): Lucifer, a high
ranking angel who wanted to be exalted to the position
of God. Through this sin, Lucifer fell and became Satan, the Devil, leading
a large number of rebellious angels with him who became the demons.
Satan and his host now seek to destroy the plan and people of God. He will ultimately
fail and be eternally punished (Matthew 25:41, Revelation 20:10).
Satanic Bible: Scripture of the Church
of Satan written by the late Anton LaVey.
Satanism: Worship of Satan,
involving occult rituals sometimes including animal or
human sacrifice to Satan. Some, possibly most, Satanists do not actually believe
in a literal Devil but unashamedly worship greed, lust and self. The Church
of Satan is probably the best-known Satanism group.
Savior of All Fellowship, Montclair, CA: Universalism.
School for Esoteric Studies, New York, NY: Masters of Wisdom include
Jesus; influenced by Alice Bailey. See Arcane
School of Ageless Wisdom, Arlington, TX: Occult,
teachings of Alice Bailey. See Arcane School.
School of Alchemy, Boulder, CO: Occult, alchemy,
Kabbalah, goddess worship.
School of Metaphysics, Dennis Rodgers, Norman, OK: New
Age, reaching ultimate potential, karma, astral
School of Natural Order, Ralph M. deBit, Baker, NV: Mixture of ancient
Egyptian, Greek and Eastern philosophies.
School of Thought, Hope Troxell, June Lake, CA: New
Age, Cosmic Brotherhood.
Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures: Principal text of Christian
Science of Man, Mother Ruth, Portland, OR:
An esoteric and mystical order reviving the doctrines of the now defunct Holy
Order of MANS.
Science of Mind: Textbook of Religious
Science, written by its founder, Ernest Holmes.
Science of Mind Church, Lunn Gardner, Mobile, AL: New
Age, channeling, intuitive powers.
Scientology: See Church of Scientology.
Scripture Research Association, College Park, MD: Sacred
Name movement, the names Jesus and Christ
Scully, Nicki, Eugene, OR: Egyptian rituals, magic,
Seance: A meeting, usually involving a medium,
in which there is a deliberate attempt to practice necromancy
by contacting or communicating with the dead using occult
Search and Prove, St. Paul Park, MN: New Age,
karma, astral projection, astral
plain, Ascended Masters.
The Secret Doctrine: See Theosophy.
Secrets, Norma Cox, Marshal, AR: UFOs. Publishes
the Secrets newsletter.
Seeing Beyond, Capitola, CA: New Age, psychic,
Self-Realization Fellowship, Paramahansa Yogananda, Los Angeles, CA:
New Age, Awaken the God within, yoga,
Self-Revelation Church of Absolute Monism, Swami Premananda, Washington,
Serpent Seed: Doctrine that alleges Eves
sin in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3) was sexual. Eve had intercourse with the
Serpent and begot Cain, whose father is really Satan not Adam. Cains descendants
were supposedly somehow perpetuated after the flood (usually through Noahs
son Ham). Diverse groups teach variations of this doctrine. Cains descendants
are: Jews according to the Christian Identity Movement,
Communists/Atheists according to the Unification Church,
Whites according to the Nation of Yahweh, the lost
according to William Branham, etc.
Seth: Spirit entity supposedly channeled
by Jane Roberts.
SEVA, CRISTAL: See Spiritual Human Yoga.
Seven Oaks, Madison, VA: New Age, channeling,
Celebration of Female Spirit, Native American Vision Quest,
Mother Earth, Gaia.
Seventh Day Adventist Church (SDA), Washington, DC:
The largest Adventist church. Ellen G. White, who claimed
to have the spirit of prophecy, was an important early leader of
the movement and taught a number of distinctive SDA doctrines, including the
Investigative Judgment and Sabbatarianism.
While the churchs official theology now appears to be generally in the
tradition of evangelical Christianity, certain SDA
claims and unique doctrines continue to raise questions. These doctrines include
the SDA belief that Sunday worship will result in the Mark of the Beast,
imbalanced teachings on keeping the commandments (baptism, Sabbath observance)
that often implies a kind of salvation by works, the
Remnant Church doctrine that implies that the SDA is or will be
Gods only true church, and the doctrine of the Investigative
Judgment. Profile available.
Shafenberg Research Foundation, Ernest Shafenberg, Kingfisher, OK: New
Age, occult, iridology, reflexology,
astrology, channeling, reincarnation,
Shamanism: Spiritual world view of Native
American and other early cultures that believe that shamans,
witch doctors or spiritual leaders, can provide healing, guidance (i.e., divination),
or wisdom through the occult, spiritism,
or altered states of consciousness. The shamans
soul is sometimes believed to leave the body during a trance (see out-of-body
experiences, astral projection), at which time the
shaman will speak with beings from the other worlds or assume animal forms.
Shambhala Institute, Asheville, NC: New Age,
visualization, Transcendental Meditation.
Shambhla Publishing, Boulder, CO: New Age publisher.
Gwen Shamblin: Founder of the Weigh Down Workshops, a popular weight-loss program in many Christian churches. The Weigh Down program teaches that overeating is a spiritual disorder, and that the key to weight loss is to substitute God for food. Acceptance within Evangelical Christian churches of Shamblin's program declined when she began to publicly deny the Trinity by teaching subordinationism, which views Jesus as a secondary divine being (similar to the theology of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society). Shamblin has started a church, Remnant Fellowship, that promotes her teachings. Resource available.
Shared Heart Foundation, Joyce and Berry Vissell, Aptos, CA: New
Age, promotes numerous mystical and esoteric writers.
Shenoa Retreat Center, Philo, CA: New Age, consciousness
healing, uses A Course in Miracles, Hinduism,
Shepherding: Christian growth is allegedly
facilitated by yielding personal freedoms to a discipler or shepherd
who controls virtually every aspect of an individuals life. This is a
form of spiritual abuse, a manipulative distortion
of true biblical discipleship that can ultimately rob individuals of their liberty
and autonomy that is to be found in Christ. Used by many
traditional cults, as well as by some religious organizations that are not cultic
in their basic doctrine.
Shepherds Chapel, Arnold Murray Gravette,
AR: Denies the Trinity, teaching instead a doctrine similar
to Modalism. Also teaches that humans existed as gods
in a pre-creation existence with God. Advocates British Israelism
and a form of the serpent seed doctrine. Profile
Shintoism: (Shen-Tao the way of the gods.)
Ancient polytheistic religion of Japan that focuses
more on Japanese Culture, traditions, attitudes and ideology rather than a system
of doctrines or code of ethics. The roots of the movement are obscure, but it
eventually developed into the idea that Japan, unlike other countries, was uniquely
fathered by the god Izanami, whose consort, the goddess Izanagi,
gave birth to the Japanese islands. Consequently the concept evolved that Japanese
people are divine and superior to other humans. In one form of the religion,
State Shintoism, the Japanese emperors were seen as infallible descendants of
the gods. Today devotion centers around public shrines and home altars dedicated
to ancestors and gods. The sun goddess Amaterasu is the chief deity worshipped,
and a belief in kami, a form of spiritism, is also
Shiva: The destroyer, third member of
the triad of gods in Hinduism, the others being Brahma
Shriners: See Freemasonry.
Shunning: (Disfellowshipping) An effective technique
of control used by Jehovah's Witnesses and other groups to
instill discipline, punish, or maintain idealistic purity. Members who do not
maintain the group's behavioral expectations or who disagree on dogma are isolate
the current, faithful members. This includes, in most cases, even family members
or friends, who are not allowed to talk or share a meal with the shunned. The
faithful, who violate the rule and communicate with the dissident, can themselves
be shunned. The practice has been identified as a form of milieu
control, one of the characteristic marks of cultic mind
Siddha Yoga Dham of America, Swami Muktananda Paramahansa,
South Fallsburg, NY: Eastern mysticism, meditation,
Siegel, Bernie: New Age author/doctor promoting meditation,
and holistic health.
Sikhism, Nanak: A religion, based mostly in the Punjab province of India,
that attempts to blend Hinduism and Islam.
The movement is based on a vision and subsequent teachings of founder Nanak
in the 15th century AD. Disciples, called Sikhs, follow the one true God named
Sat Nam (True Name). Their main scriptures are contained
in the Granth Sahib (The Lords Book), compiled by the
guru Arjan, and salvation is viewed as a merging with the
universal force (as in pantheism) .
Silva Mind Control, Jose Silva: New
Age, seminars, changing core beliefs, holistic health.
Silver, Marshall, Tempe, AZ: New Age empowerment
Singer, David: New Age, seminars, based on Church
Singh, Sant Thakar: See Kirpal Light Satsang.
Sino-American Buddhism Association, San Francisco, CA: Basic Buddhism
Smith, David J.: See Church of God Evanglistic Association.
Smith, Joseph: Founder of The Church of Jesus Christof
Societas Rosicruciana In America, Palmer, New York, NY: Astrology,
Society for Organizational Learning (SoL), Boston, MA: An affiliate
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the SoL researches and promotes
learning organizations that facilitate institutional evolution and the rethinking
of conventional and reactionary beliefs.
Society of Pragmatic Mysticism, Mildred Mann, New York, NY: Esoteric
Christianity, karma, reincarnation.
Solar Quest, Seneca, MD: New Age, God is the
Higher Energy Force, cosmic energies, vibration patterns, homeopathy.
Soka Gakkai Buddhism, Nichiren Daishonin: A mystical form of Buddhism
based on the teachings of 13th century Japanese fisherman Nichiren Daishonin,
who taught that the true interpretations of Buddhas
teachings were recorded in the Lotus Sutra.
Soka Gakkai International (SGI), Daisakqu Ikeda, Santa
Monica, CA: A cult of Soka Gakkai Buddhism, formerly named Nichiren Shoshu of
America. The sect promotes enlightenment though gongyo. This involves
kneeling before a gohonzon (black wooden box containing passages from
the Lotus Sutra), quoting this scripture, and chanting the daimoku
(nam-myoho-renge-kyo). Compared with other forms of Buddhism, this
sect is very aggressive in their missionary efforts. This sect allegedly practices
mind control, authoritarianism and desires world
Solar Temple: See Order of the Solar Temple.
Songs of David, Marvel, TX: See Church of the Most High
Sons of Noah: See Bnai Noah.
Sophia: Greek goddess of wisdom also personified
in neo-paganism Goddess worship.
Soul Sleep: (Psychopannychy) The doctrine that human souls sleep or
cease conscious existence between death and resurrection. Usually (but not always)
a doctrine associated with Adventism.
Soulmates: Marriage partners from previous lives. See Reincarnation.
Southern Dharma Retreat Center, Hot Springs, NC: New
Age/Hinduism, yoga, teaches
from A Course in Miracles, meditation.
Sovereignty, Inc., Eastsound, WA: New Age
Spangler, David: Prominent New Age writer and lecturer.
Spell: In witchcraft or Wicca,
a ritual to affect a person or the future supernaturally or magically.
Often involves incantations, and the ceremonial use of herbs, candles, knives,
or other occult paraphernalia.
Spirit Electronic Communication Society,
Manchester, England: A spiritualist organization
founded in 1949 devoted to study Zwaan Rays, an alleged energy field that supposedly
can arouse latent psychic abilities in humans.
Spirit of Prophecy Ministry, Las Vegas, NV: Predicted the return of
Christ in 1998. Publishes Insights into Prophecy.
Spiritism: Specifically, the belief found in
many primitive Cultures that inanimate objects, plants and/or animals are possessed
by spirits (good or evil) which must be appeased through occult
practices. More generally, the term can refer to any alleged contact with spirits
through occult techniques.
Spiritual Abuse: The damage or mistreatment
of someone seeking spiritual or religious help or guidance. This injury can
occur when someone uses a spiritual position or office to exercise an improper
and unhealthy domination or control over followers. Legalism
can be a form of spiritual abuse. Profile
Spiritual Advancement of the Individual Foundation, Sai Baba, Los Angeles,
CA: Eastern philosophy, avatars, Akashic
records, teachings from the so-called lost years of Jesus.
Publishes the Sathya Sai newsletter.
Spiritual Advisory Council, Orlando, FL: New Age,
psychic counseling, Mastering the Life Force; promotes
Benjamin Creme and Steve Halperns
Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship International,
Author Ford, Philadelphia, PA: Spiritualism, metaphysics,
paranormal phenomena, ESP, biofeedback, holistic
health. Joseph Fitch and Martin Ebon, and Elizabeth Fenske are popular leaders
in the movement. Affiliated with the Academy of Religion
and Psychical Research.
Spiritual Hierarchy Information Center, Ft. Lauderdale, FL: New
Age, cosmic Christ-consciousness.
Spiritual Horizons Church, Houston, TX: Esoteric
Christianity, channeling, Tarot cards,
Spiritual Human Yoga (SHY), Luong Minh Dang (a.k.a.
Kong King Knhang): Doomsday cult whose founder was arrested in Belgium but released
on 50 million francs bail in April 1999. Dang relocated to St. Louis, MO, in
June 1999 and started SHY there. He claims to be able to heal through laying
on of hands, but his techniques have been banned in several countries
due to child deaths. Dang has operated under several names, notably Human Universal
Energy, and the Institute for Human and Universal Energy Research, Inc.
Spiritual Research Society, Edward Cain, Grand Rapids, MI: New
Age, Great White Brotherhood, channeling,
Spiritual Science Institute, Santa Barbara, CA: New
Age, hypnotic future life progression, UFOs,
channeling, esoteric teachings.
Spiritualism: A movement that began in 1848
with the raps of the Fox Sisters (Kate and Margaret) in Hydesville,
NY. A form of spiritism normally associated with mediums
or channelers, who contact the spirits of the deceased
(a form of necromancy).
Spring Hill Institute, Robert Gass and Judith Gass Tierre: New
Age, Inner Awareness.
Stallone Astrology Center, Jacqueline Stallone, Toluca Lake, CA: Astrology
center founded by the mother of actor Sylvester Stallone.
Star Center for the Americas, Montgomery, TX:
New Age, pantheism, Divine light
or Christ light, meditation,
karma. See also Church of the White Eagle
Starlight Mystic Awareness School, Diane Tessman, Poway, CA: New
Age, channeling life Forces, UFOs.
Publishes The Star Netword Heartline newsletter.
Star Quest, Argyle, TX: New Age, visualization,
chakras, guided meditation.
Starshine Center, Corpus Christi, TX: New Age,
Reiki, astral projection, past
life regression, UFOs.
Stelle Group, Richard Kieninger, Stelle, IL: Become
One with God, The Brotherhood is the Holy Spirit.
Steps to Awareness, Telluride, CO: New Age, yoga,
channeling, crystals, voodoo,
rebirthing, Native American spirituality.
Sterling Management: Promotes philosophy of the
Church of Scientology through business management
services, aimed mostly at dentists, chiropractors, doctors, and veterinarians.
Stil-Light Retreat Center, Waynesville, NC: New Age,
meditation, Buddhism, Christ-consciousness,
Stonehenge: Circular cluster of upright stones
called menhirs (long stones) located in Salisbury Plain about 80 miles
west of London, England. Various theories of its origins include the belief
that ancient Druids built the site as a temple or that
it was created by extraterrestrials (cf. UFOs). Some New
Age followers, neo-pagans, and others believe that
the site has mystical powers or energy.
Students International Meditation Society: A branch of Transcendental
Subliminal Messages: Words or messages communicated
at a level below the conscious minds ability to perceive. Allegedly, messages
can enter directly into the subconscious mind, thus by-passing the rational/logical
center of the individuals brain.
Sufi Order of the Sons of the Green Light, New York, NY: See Sufism.
Sufism: Mystical sect of Islam.
Rather than focusing on the Five Pillars of Islam, Sufis seek ultimate religious
experience through mystic trances or altered states of consciousness,
often induced through twirling dances (the whirling dervish). Although
the Quran is considered scripture, many practitioners have more in common
with the New Age movement than with classic forms of
Summit Lighthouse/Summit University: See Church
Universal and Triumphant.
Summum, Salt Lake City, UT: New Age, UFOs,
ascended consciousness, mummification.
The Sun Chapel Hill, NC: New Age periodical.
Sundoor, Peggy Dylan, Twain Harte, CA: New Age,
self-realization, Native American spirituality, firewalking.
Superet Brotherhood for Mankind, Josephine C. Trust, Los Angeles, CA:
New Age, Father-Mother God, auras,
Supersensonic Energy Technologies, Boulder Creek, CA: New
Age health, crystals, God is a force, pyramidology.
Sutphen, Dick: See Master of Life.
Sweat Lodge: Native American spiritual
ritual associated with spiritual purification ceremonies and rites.
Swedenborg Foundation, Emanuel Swedenborg,
New York, NY: Denies the Trinity, rejects many books
of the Bible. Swedenborg a geologist and scientist who left his Lutheran background
to become a medium and mystic. He wrote Arcana Coelestia: The Earths in the
Universe. Latter-day prophet, spiritism, automatic
writing. Publishes Chrysalis. Profile
SYDA: See Siddha Yoga Dham of America.
Synchronicity Foundation, Faber, VA: New Age,
Hatha yoga, meditation.
Taff, Signe Quinn Sedona, AZ: New Age,
Taj Mahal, Agra, India: A 17th-century mausoleum considered to be a
holy building by some, including New Age followers.
Talisman: Small stones or amulets believed to
possess power in themselves to guard against evil spirits or for use in the
invocation of demons by sorcerers. Also an ancient occult
belief that certain objects or symbols contain supernatural magical powers,
used for attraction of love, health, success and power to control nature or
others. Closely aligned with witchcraft (see Wicca) and
Tao, TaoTe Ching, Tao Tsang: See Taoism.
Taoism, Lao-tzu: Chinese philosophy teaching that
there is no personal Godall is the impersonal Tao (similar to the impersonal
God-force of pantheism in Hinduism).
The Tao is composed of conflicting opposites (Yin and Yang)
which should be balanced or harmonized through yoga, meditation,
etc., to promote spiritual wholeness. According to legend, Taoism founder Lao-tzu
wrote Tao Te Ching (The Way and Its Power) about 550 BC.
His teaching was developed and spread in the third century BC by Chuang-Tzu,
whose writings inspired the Tao Tsang, 1200 volumes of Taoist scripture.
Tara Center, Benjamin Creme, North Hollywood, CA:
New Age, Maitreya is Jesus returned,
Christ-consciousness. Publishes The Emergence
newsletter and Share International magazine.
Tarot Cards: Occult, used
Teachers of Light: See Church of E Yada di Shi-ite.
Technicians of the Sacred, Burbank, CA: Occult,
Santeria, voodoo, magic,
Temple of Danann, Michael Ragan, Hanover, IN: Paganism/occult,
magic, Wicca, astrology.
Temple of Kriya Yoga, Goswami Kriyananda, Chicago, IL: New
Age, rebirthing, karma, astrology,
astral projection, yoga.
Temple of Set, Michael Aquino: Satanism, Egyptian
Temple of the Ascended Master, Ted M. Pierce, Yarness, AZ: New
Age, channeling, God within, karma
Temple of the People, William Dower, Halcyon, CT: Mixture of I
AM and theosophical philosophy.
Temple of the Psychedelic Light and the Church of the Realized Fantasy,
Daniel Rakowitz, East Village, NY: Satanism, human sacrifice,
Temple of the Universe, Amrit Desai, Alachua, FL: Eastern mysticism,
yoga, guided meditation.
Temple of Truth: See Light of Truth Church.
Teresa, Joan (Power Products) Mars Hill, NC: See Joan Teresa Power Products.
Teutonic Temple, Clarence Bartholomew, The Dallas, OR: Occult,
sacred feasts, paganism.
Texas Wholistic Network, Azel, TX: Christ-consciousness,
higher self. Publishes the Lightworker newspaper.
Theosophical Society in America, Wheaton, IL: Main organization in the
Theosophical Society International, Pasadena, CA: Offshoot of
Theosophy, Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky:
The Word theosophy literally means God wisdom. Founded
in 1875 to form a universal brotherhood of humanity. Teaches pantheism,
reincarnation, striving for Christ-consciousness,
and occult and paranormal phenomena. Important early leaders
include Colonel Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge, and Annie
Besant. Important texts include Isis Unveiled, The Secret Doctrine, and
The Golden Book of the Theosophical Society. Similar and/or related to the Arcane
School, the I AM Movement, the Liberal Catholic Church,
Theosophy Company, Los Angeles, CA: Offshoot of Theosophy;
see United Lodge of Theosophists.
Therapeutic Touch: New Age holistic
health practice developed by Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz of using alleged
body energy (chi) to heal a patient. Therapists move their
hands just above the surface of the patient, never actually touching the body.
This process is said to release the bodys natural psychic energy, thereby
physically healing the body. Becoming very common in nursing schools and hospitals
throughout America. Similar to Reiki. Profile
Third Eye: Highest chakra, supposedly found in
the middle of the forehead.
Thought Reform: Robert Liftons term for
Mind Control, more popularly known as brainwashing.
Thought Trends, Roswell, GA: New Age newspaper.
Tibetan Buddhism: (Lamaism) A blending of Buddhism
with the occultism of Tibet which developed in the 7th
century AD Lamas (priests) are perpetually led by the Dalai Lama who is worshipped
as the most recent reincarnation of Bodhisattva
TM: Acronym for Transcendental Meditation.
Torres, Penny: New Age,
allegedly channels the spirit entity Mafu.
Touch for Health: See Therapeutic Touch.
Touch Stone, San Francisco, CA: Occult/paganism
periodical, Wicca, runes.
Touch Therapy: See Therapeutic Touch.
Trance: An spontaneous or induced altered
state of consciousness, similar to hypnosis, which
is often employed by channelers and mediums.
Trance Channeling:See Channeling.
Transcendental Meditation, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: (TM)
New Age, altered state of consciousness,
yoga, promises to expand creativity, self-awareness, and
world peace. At the groups Maharishi University
in Fairfield, IA, TM students attempt levitation through meditation
techniques. Profile available.
Transformational Seminars: New Age, stress management.
Tree of Knowledge, Westchester, IL: New Age,
astrology, higher consciousness, Tarot,
past life regression, Fall moon meditation.
Publishes the Tree of Knowledge newsletter.
Trick or Treat: See Halloween.
Trinity: A doctrine held historically by orthodox
Christianity. The one true God eternally exists
as three distinct Persons the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The three
are co-equal, co-eternal, and one in essence. This doctrine contrasts with both
Modalism and Tritheism.
Tritheism: The belief in three separate Gods.
A denial of the Trinity doctrine and a form of polytheism.
Triumph Prophetic Ministries Church of God, William
Dankenbring, Altadena, CA: Armstrongism splinter
group; publishes Prophecy Flash.
Triumph Publishing: See Triumph Prophetic Ministries
Church of God.
True Mother and True Father: Titles of Rev. Sun Myung Moon, founder
of the Unification Church, and his wife.
Tucson Tabernacle, Tucson, AZ: See Branhamism.
Two by Twos: Alternative name for Cooneyites.
UFOs: Acronym for Unidentified Flying Object.
UG, Farmingdale, NY: Eastern mysticism, Applied
Unarius Academy of Science/Unarius Education Foundation,
Ruth Norman/Ernest Norman, El Cajon, CA: UFOs, reincarnation,
channeling, psychic communication.
Understanding Inc., Daniel Fry, Tonopah, AZ: UFOs,
Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs): The term is used
generally for all reported sightings of unidentified objects in the sky, most
of which turn out to be natural phenomena (e.g., Venus) or man-made craft (e.g.,
weather balloons). More specifically, the term UFOs refers to allegedly sighted
flying saucers or other alien spacecrafts. UFO beliefs can range
between innocuous speculation that extraterrestrial beings may have visited
Earth to quasi-religious devotion to the alleged presence and teachings of aliens.
Often these beings are believed to be non-physical (spiritual) entities who
are communicating telepathically (psychically) with contactees. Their messages
are virtually always contrary to biblical beliefs.
Unification Church, Sun Myung Moon, New York,
NY: Full name, Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.
Jesus brought only spiritual salvation; another savior is needed
to fulfill Jesus mission. Moon is that Messiah (or Christ)
and Lord of the Second Advent. This group has over 200 front organizations.
Moons Divine Principle is scripture. See Serpent Seed.
Unitarianism: Generically, the rejection
of the doctrine of the Trinity in favor of the idea that
God is exclusively one person. Unlike monarchianism
or modalism, which view Jesus as a manifestation of
the unipersonal God, or subordinationism, which views Jesus as a secondary divine
being (e.g., the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society),
Unitarianism views Jesus as a mere human being. Specifically, the term refers
to the Unitarian movement that originated in late 18th-century New England and
to the denominational body that merged with the Universalists in the 20th century
to form the Unitarian-Universalist Association.
Unitarian Universalist Association: A denomination
formed in 1961 by the merger of the American Unitarian Association (the principal
religious body teaching Unitarianism) and the Universalist
Church in America (which emphasized universalism).
While the two parent denominations were rooted in liberal
Christianity, the UUA does not even profess to be a specifically Christian
body. Its churches exhibit an eclectic blend of liberal Christianity, humanism,
atheism, and neo-paganism.
United Church of God: Armstrongism
United Church of Jesus Christ: Oneness Pentecostal.
United Lodge of Theosophists, New York, NY:
United Pentecostal Church International: The largest
Oneness Pentecostal church body.
United Research, James V. Goure, Black Mountain, NC: New
Age, Christ-consciousness, energy fields, meditation,
extra-dimensional communication. Publishes the U R Light newsletter.
Unitology Thought, Indianapolis, IN: Meditation,
Unity Churches: Affiliated with the Unity School of
Unity of Knowledge Foundation, Edith May Custard, Arlington, VA: Mixture
of Theosophy and the teachings of Alice
Unity School of Christianity, Charles and Myrtle
Fillmore, Lees Summit, MO: New Age. God is the invisible,
intangible something called Life. The Father is Principle, Jesus
was the most complete manifestation of the One Mind, and the Holy Spirit is
the activity of the God-Mind in the consciousness of man. Denies the reality
of evil, pain, sickness and death. Profile
Unity Village: Unity School of Christianity
headquarters in Lees Summit, MO.
Universal Christian Movement, Glencoe, IL: God is Power, uses Mind Power
for healing; all humans are God. Publishes The Christian Liberation newsletter.
Universal Faithists of Kosmon, George Morley: Occult,
with the All Highest, channeling. Uses OAHSPE
Universal Harmony Foundation, Seminole, FL: Practical Metaphysics,
Universal Life Church, Kirby Hensley, Medesto, CA: All people have the
right to do what they feel is right; subjective truth.
Universal Life Church of the Seven African Powers, Miami, FL: Santeria;
honor the god Ogun.
Universal Life Temple, New Port, MI: New Age,
Atlantis, aura, fifth dimensional
consciousness, levitation, telepathy.
Universal Light of Christ Church, Pat RaimondoAzle, TX: Raimondo claims
that Jesus appeared to her; latter day revelation, Christ-consciousness.
Universal Mother Marys Garden: See Mon-Ka Retreat
Universal Network, Aztec, NM: UFOs, space communiqués,
cosmic telepathy, spiritual hierarchy. Publishes Universal Network newsletter.
Universal Spiritualist Association, Chesterfield, IN: Spiritualism,
occult, medium, reflexology,
ritual magic, divine within.
Universal Temple of Divine Light, Don Slocum, Baton Rouge, LA: New
Age, spirit entities, reincarnation, pantheism,
Satan and Evil are illusions.
Universalism: Generically, the belief that
all people will eventually receive salvation and eternal life. Many different
groups hold to universalism from various perspectives and for diverse (and sometimes
opposing) reasons. This doctrine is prevalent in liberal
Christianity (among both Protestants and Roman
Catholics), as well as in the New Age movement and
in most non-monotheistic world religions. Specifically, universalism refers
to a movement dating from the late 18th century that originally affirmed universalism
on the basis that Jesus redemptive death paid for the sins of all people.
As universalism developed it came to affirm that people are acceptable as they
are and that no atonement or redemption from sin is needed or provided.
Universariun Foundation, Inc., Portland, OR: New
Age, Ascended Masters, channeling.
University of the Christ Light, Charlotte, NC: New
Age; inner states of consciousness; man is the essence of God (cf. pantheism);
Jesus was an Essene (i.e., a member of a first-century
Jewish sect that New Agers theorize was more New Age
than Jewish); Universal Mother.
University of the Trees, Christopher Hill, Boulder Creek, CA: New
Age, meditation for children, balancing energies
(cf. chi), yoga.
University of the 12 Rays of the Great Central Sun: See University
of the Christ Light.
Upanishads: One of the books considered scripture
Upper Triad, Manassas, VA: New Age, pantheism,
karma, many paths to God, astral body.
Publishes The Upper Triad newsletter.
URANTIA Book, The: Written in 1955, this
2,097 page book reflects a 19th century psychically
inspired gospel. Allegedly, Earths true name is Urantia, and it is part
of the universe of Nebadon (itself part of the larger universe of Orvonton)
ruled by a committee. The Nebadon commission of twelve, acting under the direction
of Mantutia Melchizedek, supposedly delivered portions of the book to earth.
Several organizations view the book as scripture. Profile
URANTIA Brotherhood, Chicago, IL: URANTIA-based
group established in 1955 and reorganized in 1989 after a corporate shakeup.
See Fifth Epochal Fellowship.
URANTIA Foundation, Chicago, IL: Established in 1950. Holds the copyright
on The URANTIA Book.
Urshan, Andrew: An early, well-known Oneness Pentecostal
writer and speaker.
Vedas: A compilation of four holy writings forming the oldest sacred scriptures
Verse 1 of Psalms 91, Marvel, TX: See Church of the
Most High God.
Virgin Birth: The belief that when Jesus
was conceived and born of Mary she was a virgin, and that Jesus
was conceived of the Holy Spirit. (Matthew 1:1825).
Vishnu: The preserver and second member of the
triad of Hindu demigods-gods including Brahma
Vision Quest: Native American spiritual ceremony
involving out-of-body experiences or astral
projection; also called the Way of Inner Journey.
Visions Travel, Los Angeles, CA: New Age, crystals,
Visualization: New Age
practice of using ones imagination allegedly to affect or manipulate reality.
Meditating on, affirmation of, or naming
of an object or goal, which supposedly creates the desired effect through mind
over matter. See Maya.
Voice of Reality, Phoenix, AZ: New Age newspaper.
Voice of the Olive Tree, Inc., Bernard Harland, Monrovia, CA: Latter
day prophet, Jesus second coming was predicted for
1986 (see false prophecy).
Voodoo: African religion, animal sacrifice,
chants and incantations.
Vorilhon, Claude: (Rael) See Raelian Religion.
Waldorf Schools: Based on the occult and esoteric
teachings of Rudolf Steiner, founder of the Anthroposophical
Walpurgisnacht: Alternate name for Beltane.
Warren Bible Students: See Bible Students.
Watchman Nee: See The Local Church.
Watchtower: Magazine published by the Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society; full name, The Watchtower Announcing Jehovahs
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Charles
Taze Russell, Brooklyn, NY: Satan is the originator of
the idea of the Trinity. The Father is the supreme God
whose real name is Jehovah. Jesus is a created being known
originally as Michael the Archangel; he is a god, not Jehovah. Jesus
only rose spiritually, not bodily, from the dead. The Holy Spirit is the impersonal
active force of God. Only the anointed class (or little flock)
numbering 144,000 will go to heaven, while faithful other sheep
will live eternally on a paradise earth; the lost will cease to exist (annihilationism).
Publishes the Watchtower and Awake! magazines,
the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (their own version of
the Bible), as well as numerous books. Originally called International Bible
Students, followers today are called Jehovahs Witnesses. Research
material available. Profile available.
Way Corps, The: See The Way International.
Way International, The, Victor Paul Wierwille
New Knoxville, OH: Jesus is not God or co-equal with God
the Father, a Unitarian doctrine of God; latter-day
verbal call from God to reestablish the true church. The group meets in small
groups called Twigs, usually in members homes. Main recruitment course
is the Way of Abundance and Power, which replaced the old Power for
Abundant Living (PFAL) . The American Christian Press is their publishing
arm. Their annual concert/convention, the Rock of Ages, has been discontinued.
Current leader is Rosalie F. Rivenbark, installed as third president after resignation
of Craig Martindale, who was under accusation of sexual
misconduct. The Way has experienced several splits in recent years. Profile
Way to Happiness: Twenty-one point ethics formula
written by L. Ron Hubbard promoted by the Church
of Scientology for use in elementary education.
Weil, Andrew: A medical doctor who helped popularize New
Age alternative medicine or holistic health in his
book, Spontaneous Healing.
Western Nath Order, Seattle, WA: Paganism, magic,
guardian spirits, Inner being of Supreme light.
Whirling Dervish: See Sufism.
White Dove International, Stuart Wilde, Taos, NM: New
Age, human potential, higher self, stress reduction seminars.
White Dove Partridge: See Mon-Ka Retreat
White Eagle: See Star Center for the Americas.
White, Ellen G.: See Seventh-day Adventist Church.
White, Walter: See Followers of Christ
Whitelights, Westlake Village, CA: New Age, channeling,
goddess Ashtoar and Athena, astral planes.
Whitney, Michael: See American Temple.
Whittaker, Terry Cole: See Terry Cole-Whittaker.
Whole Life Network, Santa Cruz, CA: New Age,
shamanism, rebirthing. Publishes
the Whole Life Network quarterly.
Wholistic Innerworks Foundation, Randy Barns, Durango, CO: New
Age; holistic health, specifically therapeutic
touch, reflexology, Reiki,
crystals, medicine women.
Wicca: The practice of witchcraft, nature worship,
worship of the Gods and Goddess, paganism
and neopaganism, various groups with assorted names. In modern form, it is a
revival of pagan religions (neo-paganism) and the worship
of pre-Christian Gods and Goddesses. A common creed is, Do
what you will, and harm none. Modern Wicca owes much to the influence
of Gerald B. Gardner and has been further advanced by the writings of Patricia
Monaghan, Silver Ravenwolf, the late Doreen Valiente, and the leading occult
publisher Llewellyn World Wide Ltd. In popular culture,
films and television programs such as The Craft, Practical Magic, Sabrina
the Teenage Witch, and Charmed have helped attract teens and children
to this growing religion. See Magic. Profile
Wierwille, Victor Paul: See The Way International.
Wikima Arlington, TX: Occult, paganism,
crystal ball readings, spirit guides, shamanism.
Wilde, Stuart: Prominent New Age author
Williamson, Marianne: Prominent New Age author
and speaker. Best known for her book, A Return To Love; also wrote Illuminata
and other books. See A Course in Miracles for underlying
Willow Keep, Wilton, NH: Paganism, talismans,
crystals, magic, goddess
Windsong Explorations, Bonnie Simrell, Nederland, CO: Native
American spirituality, Mother Earth, therapeutic touch,
Wisdom Institute of Spiritual Education, Dallas, TX: New
WISE International, Los Angeles, CA: Acronym for Worldwide Institute
of Scientology Enterprises; promotes Church of Scientology.
Wise Woman Center, Susan Weed, Woodstock, NY: Pagan,
goddess worship, Equinox and Halloween
Witchcraft: See Wicca.
Witness Lee: See The Local Church.
W.J. Publishers, Brother Stanley, Toronto, Ontario: New
Age, Cosmic-Psychic Treatment, Egyptian rituals.
Womans Circle, El Prado, NM: New Age, shamanistic
journeys, visualization, Native
American medicine bags.
Womens Federation for World Peace, Hak Ja Han Moon, New York,
NY: Connection with the Unification Church.
Womyn Healing, Sandra Boston de Sylvia, Greenfield, MA: Paganism,
guided meditation, visions, Gaia
Word-Faith Movement: A movement based in large
part on the teachings of E. W. Kenyon (1867-1948) that became a distinct movement
under the teaching and leadership of Kenneth Hagin, a Pentecostal faith-healing
evangelist. God himself is said to have created the world and to do all that
he does by speaking words of faith. Mans creation in Gods image
is commonly understood to mean that human beings are little gods
capable of speaking creative words of faith. The fall of Adam into sin is interpreted
as having transformed Adam (and all unredeemed people) into Satans nature
and as having transferred Adams godhood or dominion on earth to Satan.
Jesus is believed to have become man in order to restore
human beings to godhood as renewed incarnations of God. He is said
to have done this by dying spiritually as well as physically on the cross, suffering
in hell, and then while in hell becoming the first person to be born again,
before finally being raised from the dead. Those who believe in Jesus are supposedly
empowered to speak words of faith again, especially in order to obtain bodily
health and financial prosperity (both of which are supposedly guaranteed as
present possessions in the Atonement). . In contrast, traditional Christian
theology teaches that God and God alone can bring about whatever he chooses;
that man was created to reflect Gods character and to implement his will,
not to be little gods; that man is fallen but not Satanic in nature; that God
is still in control of this world; that Jesus Christ alone is God incarnate;
that Jesus died physically, not spiritually, to redeem us; that Jesus therefore
was not born again; and that health and prosperity are promised to believers
in the future resurrection. In the meantime God heals and prospers people providentially
and miraculously when and as he sees fit. Most of the followers of the Word-Faith
teachers are Pentecostals and other evangelical Christians.
Word Over the World (WOW): See The Way International.
World Community, J.E. Rash, Bedford, VI: New Age,
mystic, teaches the five ancient Orders.
World Council of Churches: An international agency promoting interfaith
dialogue and ecumenical cooperation among churches. Most participants are mainline
denominations dominated by the theological perspective of liberal
World Tomorrow, The: The now defunct radio and television program
begun by Herbert Armstrong. See Armstrongism.
Worldwide Church of God, Herbert W. Armstrong Pasadena,
CA: Under the leadership of its founder, Herbert W. Armstrong, this church rejected
the essential doctrines of evangelical Christianity,
denying the doctrine of the Trinity, the full deity of
Jesus Christ, and the personality
of the Holy Spirit. The church epitomized the somewhat eclectic set of beliefs
and practices that became known as Armstrongism.
Beginning in the early 1990s under the leadership Armstrongs successors,
Joseph W. Tkach and his son Joe Tkach, this group has undergone remarkable doctrinal
transformation. They now hold to a traditional evangelical position on the nature
of God and the gospel, teaching the Trinity
and salvation by grace alone, through faith alone. Large
numbers of its membership have left to join splinter groups that still teach
classic Armstrongism. Publishes The Plain Truth
magazine. Profile available.
Worrall, Olda: See New Life Clinic.
WOW: (Word Over the World). See The Way International.
Yahweh ben Yahweh: Founder of Nation of Yahweh.
Yahwehism: Alternative name for the Sacred
Yahwehs Assembly in Messiah, David Barnard, Rockport, MO: Publishes
The Master Key, Unlocking Bible Truth magazine. See Sacred
Yang: See Yin and Yang.
Yes Education Society, Washington, D.C.: New Age,
yoga, palm reading, astrology,
Yi King: Alternative form of the term I Ching.
Yin and Yang: Taoist concept,
used in the New Age movement, holding that the universe consists
of two opposite energy forces (positive/negative; male/female, etc.). Both are
necessary and both must be harmonized for proper function. This Yin and Yang
also flow through the human body so that a balance is required to maintain health.
Many New Age holistic health techniques,
such as acupuncture, are based on attempts to balance
this alleged energy or chi. When all is balanced, the Yin
and Yang harmonize and the body works properly.
Yoga: Exercises (physical, mental or spiritual) based
on Eastern metaphysical assumptions designed to aid in enlightenment or self-realization.
Goals sometimes include altered states of consciousness
or uniting the practitioner with the impersonal pantheistic
God. Types of Yoga include: Karma Yoga (spiritual union through correct conduct),
Bhakti Yoga (spiritual union through devotion to a Guru),
Juana Yoga (spiritual union through hidden knowledge), Raja Yoga (spiritual
union through mental control), Hatha Yoga (spiritual union through body control/meditation),
Kundalini Yoga (spiritual union through focusing inner energy) and Tantra Yoga
(spiritual union through sexual practices). Yoga philosophy is based on the
concept of reincarnation and is drawn from the
Upanishads and other Hindu
Yoga Journal, Berkley, CA: New Age periodical. See
Yoga Research Foundation, Jyotir Maya Nanda, Miami, FL: Yoga, Eastern
mysticism. Publishes International Yoga Guide
Yoga Research Society, Phildelphia, PA: Eastern mysticism,
yoga, meditation, alternative
healing practices (i.e., holistic health). Publishes
the Yoga Research newsletter.
Yogi: A teacher or master of yoga.
York, Malachi Z., See Ancient Mystic Order
Yule: Occult holiday celebrated on the shortest
day of the year, the winter solstice (December 21). Because of its close proximity
to Christmas, the term Yule has often been used as a designation for Christmas.
Zen Buddhism: A branch of Mahayana Buddhism
believed to have originated in India from the teachings of a Buddhist master,
Bodhidharma, about 600 BC, but traced back by advocates to the Buddha
himself. Practitioners seek satori (sudden illumination enabling bliss
and harmony), which cannot be explained but only experienced. Techniques include
zazen (sitting meditation techniques) and koans,
which are short riddles or sayings. The koans (which number about 1,700) are not
designed to have cognitive answers but to promote the experience of Zen.
Zen Master Rama, a.k.a. Frederick P.
Lenz: Occult, ancient Egyptian rituals, meditation,
Atlantis. Also known as the computer guru whose software
company, Advanced Systems, Inc., has been called a recruiting arm for his mind
control, New Age group. See Zen Buddhism.
Zendik Farm, Wulf Aendik, Boulveard, CA: Paganism,
cosmic connection, psychic realm.
Zentech, Don Mead, Surry, ME: New Age, meditation,
Zerubbabel, Inc., Hopkinsville, KY: God is All (pantheism),
man is Christ in true essence. Publishes The Intercessor
Zodiac: See Astrology.
Zohar/Zolar: See Kabbalah.
Zoroastrianism, Zoroaster: Religion thought to be founded about 600
BC in Persia (present day Iran). According to legend, Zoroaster received enlightenment
by the Daitya river when, at age 30, he received a vision of Vohu Manah (Good
Thought) who took him into the presence of lord Ahura-Mazda. Lord Mazda
taught Zoroaster the true religion, rejecting magic
and idol worship and promoting belief in heaven, hell, a devil (Angra-Mainyu)
and one true god. Later followers, however, worshipped Zoroaster in addition
to Mazda. Good Lord Mazda and evil Angra Mainyu are seen as equal in power.
Teaches enlightenment and salvation by works, including
fire worship and partaking of the hallucinogenic haoma (soma in
Zwaan Rays: See Spirit Electronic Communication
Zygon International, Dane Spotts, Issaquah, WA: New
Age, inner power, ESP, meditation,
fifth state of consciousness.